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Ethiopia: The Long-term cost of minority dominated dictatorship and the prospect for transition to democracy
By Jawar Mohammed
(NB: This essay was drafted before Meles Zenawi fell ill and was put on hold until things clear up. Attempt has been made to update it with the new developments)
Following the popular uprisings throughout North Africa and the Middle East, both democracy activists as well as those working to preserve the status quo are closely watching this incredible moment. While Tunisia and Egypt experienced a quick and orderly downfall of dictatorships, the uprisings in Libya and Syria turned bloody. Yemen falls somewhere in between. One of the factors that differentiate the orderly fall of a strongman from the bloody and protracted civil war is the level of sectarian concentration of power.
Three themes will be addressed in this essay. Why do certain authoritarian regimes exercise blatant discrimination when distributing rent – i.e. political power and wealth? How could such regimes concentrate power and wealth in the hands of small sectarian groups and remain in power for so long? Finally, what kind of transition is likely to take place in such situations?
Let us start with a brief look at how each of the three regimes evolved.In Syria and Libya, the status quo is characterized by extensive concentration of economic privilege and political power in the hands of a single ethnic/religious group, with the vast majority excluded. Under such conditions, transitions could only be achieved after the old regime is completely obliterated, including its support base and institutions. A cursory look at how these two countries got into their respective situations shows a remarkable similarity to the developments in Ethiopia in the last two decades.
Libya: The tragedy of the Qadhadhfa tribe; from have it all to lose it all
When 27-year-old Moammar Gaddafi staged a coup d’etat in 1969, his small Qadhadhfa tribe was a little known marginal group located in the northwestern Libyan desert. By the time the popular uprising against his rule erupted in 2011, his once insignificant tribe became so powerful that Gaddafi offered their once nonexistent village of Sirte as a seat for the the African Union.
Under the cover of Nasserist Pan-Arab rhetoric, the core of Gaddafi’s coup coconspirators were officers of the Qadhadhfa. Hence although initially he promised a collective leadership made up of mid-rank officers, Gadaffi eventually resorted to clan loyalty. Writing for Think Africa Press, Jan De Haansta
“despite Gaddafi’s rhetoric of Arab socialism and a post-tribal Libya, he always remained strongly aware of the potential threat to his power posed by other tribes and, in the process, ending up exacerbating tribal tensions.”
Having survived the first coup attempt a few months after taking power, he began surrounding himself by officers from his tribe. When these aroused opposition from officers who belonged to other tribes, he purged them and filled their place by recruiting more soldiers from Qadhadhfa. Gaddafi faced multiple coups, the most serious ones in 1975 and 1979 by officers and bureaucrats that despised his increasingly dictatorial and discriminatory policies. Once he “cleansed” the military of troublemakers and replaced them with his tribal kinsmen, the opposition took on the form of Islamic insurgency – which, thanks to the open desert, he was able to easily quash.
The more threats he faced the more blatant his favoritism towards his tribe became. Cognizant of the fact that in such an open desert country conditions are unfavorable for insurgency, therefore the only internal threat would come from the military, he gradually and systematically weakened the army through purges and defunding. Gaddafi understood his tiny tribe was numerically too small to fill up a real army. So, he disabled the army and strengthened the revolutionary guard of a few brigades filled with soldiers from his tribe and mercenaries from neighboring countries, and commanded either by his sons or close relatives. In this way he neutralized the army while increasing his own security.
Besides concentration of power, the Qadhadhfa tribesmen accumulated enormous wealth and dominated the economy. In addition to disproportionate distribution of oil revenue to his tribe and the region, Gaddafi ensured Qadhadhfa business elites benefited from skewed competition and government subsidy. Gaddafi’s immediate family sat at the top of the business class owning or running most of the major corporations.
In explaining why the Libyan revolution was not as quick as that of Tunisia and Egypt, John Hamilton wrote:
“[Gaddafi] stuffed the lists of regional military governors, Republican Guard leaders and Revolutionary Committee members with members of his own tribe, the Qadhadhfa. Because of its relatively lowly status in the hierarchy, it is unlikely that the majority of the population would accept another of its members wielding power in Gaddafi’s place: that means the entire regime has its back to the wall, not just its leader.”
Inevitably, the struggle against Gaddafi practically became a struggle against the interest and security of Qadhadhfa tribe, who owed their power and privilege to Gaddafi, and stood to lose it all if he was toppled. They fought to the last minute, and went from having it all to losing it all when Sirte fell on the death of Gaddafi. Having suffered debilitating casualties during the war, and guilt-stricken for the mass atrocities they committed, the Qadhadhfa have little if any role in the power politics of the new Libya.
Syria: The Making and unmaking of the Alawite Monopoly
In an article published in 1989 Daniel Pipes, an expert on Middle Eastern politics, wrote
“For many centuries, the ‘Alawis[ who make up 13% of the population] were the weakest, poorest, most rural, most despised, and most backward people of Syria. In recent years, however, they have transformed themselves into the ruling elite of Damascus. Today, ‘Alawis dominate the government, hold key military positions, enjoy a disproportionate share of the educational resources, and are becoming wealthy.”
Four decades after Alawites took state power, and twenty three years since Pipes penned this observation, what is the consequence of such Alawite domination for the contemporary politics of Syria?
During the first two decades of its independence, Syria experienced extreme political instability, marked by numerous coups and counter-coups. Stability was restored only after Hafez al-Assad took power in 1970. Having watched that neither military rank nor ideological support insulated his numerous predecessors from coups, Assad believed that only a patronage system based on primordial identity could help him create a reliable and loyal support base. Thus, as a politically ambitious young military officer, he created a clandestine group of Alawites within the military and the Ba’th party. A prominent member of the military committee that staged the 1963 and 1966 coups, by the time he officially took power in 1970 through another coup, Assad had already built a strong Alawite block within the Baath party, and this block immediately dominated his government. Assad also forged alliances with the Alawite and Druze business classes. The two minority groups who long complained about discrimination by the Sunni majority have had strong reasons to help him consolidate power.
Although Syrian and foreign observers alike were alarmed by such concentration of power in the hands of the minority, they rationalized it as an acceptable price for ending the immediate political crisis. Basically, if Alawites could usher a new era of stability in the country, went their thinking, let them do it. However, the increasing domination began to stir resentment among the Sunni majority. The regime responded by purging Sunnis from the military and security. Alawites were recruited to the military en masse to replace the purged Sunnis. In a recent essay on the roots of the Alawite-Sunni rivalry, AyseTekdalFildis notes that
“after the [November 1970] coup, the gaps in the army resulting from purges of political opponents were filled by Alawites…the representation of Alawites among the newly appointed officers was as high as 90 percent.”
This was followed by development of a skewed economic scheme in which Sunni businesses considered to be disloyal were systematically pushed out, giving Alawites economic control.
In the 1980s, the tension rose to armed confrontation, as Sunni rebels targeted Alawite elites for assassination. In return, Assad responded by ordering the bombing of Hama – resulting in a massacre of 40,000 civilians. Having soaked its hand in blood, the regime had lost any chance of reconciling with the Sunnis; its only option for remaining in power was to strengthen and further secure the loyalty of the Alawites. In addition to continuous favouritism, fear-mongering propaganda was employed in which, theSunnis were portrayed as savages who will turn back the clock to the old days of domination and destroy the Alawites if Assad was to lose power. Four decades later, the regime and Alawites have become two sides of the same coin welded together with blood and privilege. For the Alawites, defending the regime became a necessity for defending the future existence of their people. For the opposition, fighting dictatorship meant fighting the Alawites who are at defensive line.
Therefore, close observers of the country’s politics were not surprised when the popular uprising that began in March 2011 quickly turned into a sectarian civil war. A recent report by the Associated Press notes that
“Sectarian slayings between Syria’s Sunni majority and the Alawite minority have been a brutal reality of Syria’s 17-month-old conflict, and they have only accelerated as the country falls into outright civil war. Sunnis have largely backed the uprising against Assad’s rule, while the Alawites — members of an offshoot of Shiism — have firmly stood behind the regime, where they fill the leadership ranks.”
The regime’s brutal attack on civilian protesters during the early stages of the conflict resulted in a defection of low-ranking Sunni members of the military, followed by the purging and execution of officers suspected of being disloyal. Assad’s paranoia reached its peak when the most senior security personnel of the regime were blown up at the intelligence headquarters. Soon after, the highest-ranking Sunni member of the cabinet, the Prime Minister, had to defect in order to save himself from the anger, fear and suspicion that gripped the Alawite elites.
As the above-mentioned report by the AP indicates, as “tit-for-tat killings have increased, so has the segregation of the two communities”. Yet such segregation does not seem to be a result of communal violence alone, but part of an exit strategy by a regime whose hold on much of the country is rapidly depleting. As Franck Salameh argues,
” The grisly massacres running riot through the Syrian countryside are not mere sectarian outbursts or bouts of senseless killings and retaliatory counter killings… what they entail in terms of displacements, deportations and population movements—are nothing if not the groundwork of a future Alawite entity; the grafting of new facts on the ground and the drafting of new frontiers. No longer able to rule in the name of Arab unity (and in the process preserve their own ethnic and sectarian autonomy), the Alawites may retreat into the Levantine highlands overlooking the Mediterranean.”
Therefore, just like Gaddafi, Assad seems to be preparing to flee to his home and try to form a separate state that he can rule and protect his and his group’s interests. Only time will tell whether this strategy will help avoid Gaddafi’s fate – because by the time Assad gives up on Damascus, the military and security apparatus tirelessly built by his father would be severely damaged and unlikely to provide him a safe-haven in a new breakaway state.
In that 1989 piece quoted above, Daniel Pipes prophesied:
“It appears inevitable that the ‘Alawis – still a small and despised minority, for all their present power – will eventually lose their control over Syria. When this happens, it is likely that conflicts along communal lines will bring them down, with the critical battle taking place between the ‘Alawi rulers and the Sunni majority. In this sense, the ‘Alawis’ fall – be it through assassinations of top figures, a palace coup, or a regional revolt – is likely to resemble their rise.”
Sadly, this prediction has been realized with the ongoing popular armed uprising. Not only the hegemony of the Alawite elites is rapidly crumbling, but also the social fabric, economic and military foundation of the Syrian state and society is being destroyed. Whether to protect themselves from internal threat or to justify their domination by earning nationalist credentials, the Alawite elites built strong military, intelligence institution that had made Syria one of the most powerful regional players. Unfortunately by excluding the rest of the population from genuinely taking part in such national project and denying them equitable share, they made the current civil war inevitable. The elites’ quest for eternal domination resulted in more marginalization of their Alawite community and left the Syrian state weaker than ever before.
When we look at what has been happening in Ethiopia in the last two decades, we observe frighteningly similar developments to those of Libya and Syria. In assessing Meles’ 21 years rule, a recent report by the International Crisis Group asserted
“Meles engineered one-party rule in effect for the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) and his Tigrayan inner circle, with the complicity of other ethnic elites that were co-opted into the ruling alliance, the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). The Front promised freedom, democracy and ethnic devolution but is highly centralised, tightly controls the economy and suppresses political, social, ethnic and religious liberties.”
Meles came to power riding on Tigrean grievances. In order to consolidate power, he needed to maintain the loyalty of his Tigrean base and the movement’s organizational cohesiveness so that he could effectively neutralize the previous power-holders, the Amhara, as well as emerging contenders, the Oromos. In addition to completely demobilizing the previous military and replacing it with his own ethnic rebel army, he gradually filled the bureaucracy at the federal level with individuals from his ethnic group. Systematic acquisition of wealth – through establishing endowments explicitly meant to serve his ethnic group, and domination of the market by Tigrean businessmen through displacement of others – has been heavily and systematically undertaken.
In an article written three years ago, I discussed the strategic logic behind Meles’ transformation of Tigrean nationalism from a fuel for peasant revolution to a weapon for consolidation and sustenance of his political power.
“Meles [the ruling elites under his leadership] have been using the Tigrean people to insulate themselves against their opponents. Thus, disproportionately favoring the Tigray region is a calculated move not only to increase Meles’ nationalist credentials, but also to agitate the rest of the Ethiopian people, and create a sense of insecurity among the Tigreans so that they remain loyal supporters of the regime. Similarly, Tigrean elites have been made to monopolize the center in order to propagate tension and hostility from the elites of other ethnic groups. As a result, in order to retain their economic privilege, power and sense of security, the Tigrean elites have to defend the regime at any cost.”
Although some moderation was observed after the ruling elites split in 2001, this policy of building the Tigrean monopoly of business, military and security has been re-intensified after the 2005 election, an episode that posed a serious threat to the status quo. The parties that competed in the election made an issue out of the emerging Tigrean domination, which alarmed the Tigrean politico-military and business elites, motivating them to close ranks around Meles. The post-election violence and the reversal of the democratic opening observed from 2004 onward dashed hope for “change in Ethiopia to bring about peace and for the peoples to live in equality,” as stated by General Kemal Gelchu, who was among many non-Tigrean elites who defected from the regime.
Then, using conspiracy of coup d’etat as pretext, most of the high-ranking military officers from the two main ethnic groups that posed a threat, Oromo and Amhara, along with tens of thousands of soldiers, have been purged from the military – imprisoned, demoted and then replaced by Tigreans. Currently all but one of the generals commanding Ethiopia’s armed forces are Tigrean, and even in the lower ranks many officers decry the sectarian nature of the military organization.
Once the immediate external threats were neutralized, transfer of wealth to Tigrean elites has been intensified – with the aim of further consolidating power. In addition to the fledgling party-owned conglomerate, the Endowment Fund for the Rehabilitation of Tigray, which owns over 85 companies operating “banks, insurance forms, manufacturing and construction giants, hotel chains and media outlets,” a new class of Tigrean private millionaires have sprung up. Looking at businesses (agriculture, industry and service sector alike) that have started in the last five years shows us how blatant this scheme of establishing Tigrean economic domination has become. For instance, in the case of the ongoing land grab, field research by the Oakland Institute found out that
” All but one of the domestic investors that we visited were from the Tigray region, and several spoke of the ease of acquiring land and of securing credit. One regional government official in Gambella estimated that 75 percent of the domestic investors in Gambella were from Tigray. Many of these Tigray investors seem to have limited, if any, farming experience.”
Ironically, Meles often ranted, both in his writings and verbally, against rent seeking behavior. His major criticism was directed at Amhara and Oromo opponents of the regime, whom he accused of seeking power to enrich themselves. However, in reality he turned Tigrean domination of the Ethiopian state into a grand rent producing enterprise. While Tigreans collect the lion’s share of the rent, cronies with strong political connections to the ruling party are receiving the leftover that trickles down to them through the political patronage system. While Meles attributed Somalia’s collapse to rent seeking behavior by Said Barre family, he failed to take note of the danger presented by his own comrades converting their sole ownership of Ethiopian state into a huge cash making machine.
Simply put, in his relentless drive to protect and prolong his rein, Meles wanted to deny any material sources of power to his opponents and use it to maintain loyalty of his base. Consequently, the more Meles favored his kin, the more threats he faced from the alienated elites of other ethnic groups, including those serving within the system, which resulted in an ever-growing exclusiveness of the power elites. Upon his death, Meles leaves behind a political system characterized by growing segregation between the Tigrean elites and the rest of the country. Unless these discriminatory policies and practices are reversed by opening up the political system to competition and compromise, conflict along sectarian lines is inevitable. Writing on the importance of using nonviolent methods in waging struggle in a fragmented society, I expressed my concern that if and when they lose grip of the capital the ruling elites could flee to Mekele and fortify themselves using Tigray as a shield. Similarly footnote 56 of ICG’s latest states
“If the TPLF is fundamentally threatened and seeks to keep power by any means, it might return to its original ethnic platform, call for Tigrayan independence, move most of the army to Tigray and unilaterally implement the self-determination enshrined in the 1994 constitution.”
Suffice it to say that the risk of the ruling elites attempting to break away a part of the country is higher than of Libya and Egypt, because today Tigray has the administrative apparatus, economic strength and constitutional justification that can be utilized to seek independence, when push comes to shove. Yet by the time, they give up on the center, their military capability and political capital would be so damaged that, they are unlikely to be able to defend the enclave by withstanding the rapidly shifting gravity of power.
Why Do Authoritarian Regimes Establish Sectarian Monopolies?
Why do some dictators promote monopolization of political power and wealth at the hands of a particular ethnic/religious group? The usual and simplistic answer is that such rulers care more about their ethnic kin rather than the country they run. That being as it may, my view is that the real reason for such policy is the ruler’s concern for his own political power rather than the benefit of his kin.
If we look at the three cases briefly discussed above, it’s possible that, before ascending to power, the three leaders shared the grievances of their ethnic or religious group. However, what necessitated the initial acts of sectarian preference was the desire to secure their fragile hold on power from immediate threat. During transition from one ruler to another, state power is vulnerable to subversion, either in the form of coup or popular uprising. Therefore, in order to consolidate the power they have just grabbed and prevent it from being taken away by rival factions, aspiring dictators surround themselves with trusted supporters whose loyalty is not just based on material interest but also emotional and psychological identification with the ruler. And primordial identity, by allowing a clearer delineation of us vs. them, offers a stronger loyalty than other forms of group formation such as profession or class.
The problem is that a ruler that uses primordial identity to help him consolidate power is likely to be stuck with the model for the rest of his rule. For one, by promoting his kinsmen, by the time he has consolidated power, he has alienated and aggrieved others. And since such people holding grievances could pose potential threat, its is difficult to trust them and bring them on board and make peace with them. Furthermore, since positions of power and privileges are often limited, promoting outsiders as way of reconciling with them requires demoting kin. Such action of course amounts to depleting the ruler’s only dependable loyal base and creating potential internal threat.
Therefore, the excessive preferential treatment and the eventual exclusive monopolization of power and wealth at the hand of a single group is a result of, in part, the strategy of the dictatorship and in part its consequence. The strategic objective of the dictator is to appease his particular base in order to secure and maintain their loyalty. Consequently, the major channels of political power and economic privilege will be filled with people from that specific group. Since wealth and power trickles down from top to bottom through these channels, gradually the entire preferred group appears to be more privileged than other groups, while the outside groups become victims of perceived or real exclusion.
Why Minority Monopoly Endures
Despite their narrow support base, minority dominated regimes are among the longest surviving authoritarian systems around the world. In addition to the three cases under discussion, from apartheid South Africa to various Latin American countries minority rule has endured majority opposition for decades. And while minority dictatorships have been able to remain in power by facilitating monopolization of wealth and politics in the hands of their base, it seems that such tactics do not work for dictators who originate from the majority population group. Why might this be so?
The obvious reason is that for dictators coming from a large group, since the group already contributes substantial amount to national output, favouritism would not create the sense of privilege. Let us assume that one dictator originates from a population that makes up 10% of the population, while another dictator comes from a group that makes up 60%. If the former channels just 40% of the national wealth and power to his 10% group, the impact, perception and visibility of the preferential treatment would be significant. While the marginalized 90% will no doubt feel indignant about their relegated status, the preferred minority would have very little to be dissatisfied about. If, on the other hand, a 60% majority channels 80% of the wealth, the impact and perception would be much less significant. Thus, the dictator has to choose a specific segment of the majority (military, region etc), to channel the resources which fragments the larger group, leading to the rise of internal rivalries and alliances with ‘outsiders’. Thus, for an aspiring tyrant emerging from the majority, group-based clientelism is not a very effective way of consolidating and maintaining authoritarian power.
The second reason is that cohesion, one of the necessary tools for effective collective action, is harder for larger groups than smaller ones. Unlike leaders of a minority group, who can use the fear of existential threat to keep their base in a state of permanent insecurity, leaders of large group cannot do so due to the sense of security that comes with large groups.
This does not mean that dictators originating from majority groups would not exercise discriminatory policy or practice fear-mongering – they do. Such dictators also use sectarian tactics to remain in power. They usually practice statist nationalism, which emphasizes unity and often uses minorities as scapegoats for the perceived or real problems of the majority – which are usually created due to failure of the leadership itself.
For instance, the Mubarak dictatorship used propaganda that called into question the loyalty of the minority Copts to the nation in order to pit them against the majority Muslims. In Burma the military junta used the secessionist threat of minority ethnic groups as part of its strategy to justify suspension of civil rights for decades. However, while such exploitation of the majority’s prejudice against the minority does help deflect attention, it does not permanently prevent the emergence of a rival group from within the majority. Rivals can challenge the status quo either brandishing ultra-nationalist rhetoric to steal away a segment from the majority or offer moderate alternatives to win over minority and build a progressive coalition. Therefore, authoritarian regimes that rely on majority as support base are marred by frequent coups by internal saboteurs, which shortens their lifespan.
Transition from Authoritarian Regimes Monopolized by Minority
In his popular book The Third Wave, Samuel Huntington gave three possible ways of transition from dictatorship to democracy. The first is transformation, a process in which the ruling elite willingly take the initiative to facilitate transition to democracy. The second, replacement, is when the opposition takes the lead in bringing about democracy by overthrowing the dictatorship or forcing its downfall. The third, transplacement, occurs due to a combination of reformist actions from within the status quo and pressure exerted by the opposition. As we will see below, in cases where the authoritarian system has facilitated monopolization of political power and economy by a minority group, only one way – replacement – is the most like outcome.
Transformation Through Reforming the status qo
Rulers emerging from a minority group might embark on consolidating power through the use of kinship loyalty as a temporary tactic, with the aim of using their power to eventually establish a more inclusive government, and even ushering in a democratic transition. They might be able to do so if they undertake such reform within a short period of taking power. But, as we saw in the cases discussed above, once those promoted relatives and kinsmen have entrenched themselves in power and privilege, implementing reform would be near impossible. That is because, over time, having built strong network and accumulated wealth, the political, economic and military elites of the privileged group develop a capacity that can resist and undermine any reform that threatens the status quo – even if it comes from the ruler that paved the way for their enrichment at the first place.
That is what happened in Syria. Upon inheriting power from his father in 2000, Bashar al-Assad, who is known to be very liberal as a person, attempted to introduce some political reform, ushering a period known as the Damascus Spring. He loosened his father’s strict state of emergency and encouraged open discussion and debate on political and social issues. Opposition leaders, intellectuals and reformist Baath party members established discussion forums that immediately became popular. As intellectuals began taking on the sensitive issues of sectarian favouritism and the opposition used the forums to agitate for more reform, Assad came under increased pressure from the establishment to curb the opening. In less than a year, the door was slammed shut again, opposition leaders thrown into jail and charged with inciting sectarian hatred and attempting to change the government through extra-constitutional mechanisms. With that ended the much anticipated Damascus Spring!
It is believed that the establishment did not only resist the pressure but also threatened the newly anointed leader, who already had to watch over his shoulder against his ambitious brother, General Maher, commander of the elite republican guard. Had Bashar insisted on the reform that threatens the privilege of the establishment, they could have toppled and replaced him by his brother, since they have already developed the economic and political capability to do so. When the recent uprising began, it was reported that Assad had to postpone a scheduled speech for several consecutive days and eventually drop an offer for negotiation that was objected by the establishment, and replace it with a much tougher tone of threat.
Therefore, as the Syrian and other similar case demonstrate, once sectarian monopoly of political power and economy is entrenched and institutionalized, transition through internal reform becomes very difficult if not impossible.
Transplacement: Negotiated Transition
Transplacement refers to a negotiated transition between the status quo and the opposition. Basically, the opposition, either nonviolently through public mobilization, or violently wearing out the regime’s repressive capabilities, induces the regime to sit down for negotiation. The status quo, fearing total loss in the eventual collapse, and the opposition, wishing for a quick end to the conflict or being uncertain about victory, reaches a stalemate that allows the conflicting parties to reach a consensus whereby the status quo gives up power in exchange for keeping certain privilege or immunity from persecution.
However, as Acemoglu and Robinson, in the Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy (2006), have shown, democratic transition is more difficult when inequality between the ruling group and the mass is very high. The reason is that the ruling elites’ fear of cost of redistribution in case they lose power leads them to stick to power rather than to relinquish. Since power and wealth is totally controlled by the ruling group who are usually a tiny minority, it is also unlikely that the opposition would be satisfied without significant transfer.
A localized version of this theory can be presented as follows. Let’s assume an elderly man namedGuyo, a father of 10 children and owner of 100 cattle suddenly died without leaving a will. By default the cattle fall in the hands of the youngest son Abbaa-irree, who was taking care of the old man. Customarily the property should have been equally divided among the children. But Abbaa-irree has another idea; he offered one cow each of his siblings’ and kept the rest to himself. When they protested the unfairness and insisted on equal share, instead of budging, Abbaa–irree decided to sell the ten cows and hire securities and bandits to chase away his siblings. How could this family feud be solved?
The fairest and logical formula would be to persuade Abbaa-irree to agree on equal sharing. But why should he agree to a deal that stands to reduce his share from 90 to 10, while he could easily reinforce his defense by selling 20 more. He would still be left with 70 cows. The ‘elders’ could try to persuade the victimized siblings to settle for half of what they are normally entitled to. Although each of them gets 5 cows rather than 10, that is still better than 1. Abbaa-irreewould also be left with 50 which is less than what he now owns but still much better off than what he should get under normal conditions.
But neither party is likely to accept this deal. For one, displaced, impoverished and humiliated, the marginalized siblings are so bitter that a just and equal share is the minimum they would settle for. Hence they rather promise half of the cattle to a warlord or a bandit to acquire weapons that can be used to coerce Abbaa-irree into giving up. For Abbaa-rree, fearing that his angry siblings might want to avenge him one day, he rather sell the fifty or even more cows and further reinforce his defensive mechanism rather than give it away and empower his enemy.
Years after Guyo’s death that sparked the family feud, the situation would be more complicated making the probability of resolving the issue an impossible task. The cattle would be multiplied through reproduction, making Abbaa-irree richer and more powerful but also complicating the numbers. Blood could have been shed increasing the drive for vengeance and rising insecurity of Irree’s household. Also as children have grown up and as each side solicited the help of third parties (bandits, warlords, clan leaders, government officials etc), the number of stakeholders in this affair, with competing and conflicting interests would be multiplied. Thus finding acceptable and peaceful solution becomes a nightmare; leaving the conflicted to be settled when grievance and sheer numbers of the victimized siblings overpower and overrun the material strength of Abbaa-irree and his allies.
Similarly in an authoritarian system where sectarian monopoly of power and wealth is institutionalized, the difficulty is even greater because the ruling class faces not just redistribution of its wealth and power – but also frames the conflict as if the very safety of their ethnic/religious group hangs in balance. Consequently as conflict intensifies and the tension rises, cohesion increases among the ruling group that faces the existential threat. As more blood is shed by the regime, organized or protracted retaliatory attacks on the members of the ruling ethnic/religious group will increase. In such a situation, moderates from each of the sides advocating for compromise will run back to their group for protection, which leaves the conflict to be dominated by hardliners from both sides, closing the window of negotiation. Thus, peaceful power transfer becomes impossible and a total defeat of one side or the other becomes the only possible outcome. That is what happened in Libya, and it is happening in Syria.
Replacement: Disintegration of the Authoritarian System
Since the entrenched interests undermine any effort for internal reform and the high cost of redistribution hinders negotiated power transfer, the likely transition in a minority-monopolized dictatorship is a complete overthrow of the system. In his famous book, ‘From Dictatorship to Democracy’, Gene Sharp gives two mechanisms in which an opposition can forcefully bring down a dictator resulting in a replacement transition. Coercion is when the opposition, through effective mobilization, paralyses the ability of the regime to suppress the population. Once they realize that the system’s endurance is running low and the downfall of the dictator is inevitable, the elits (military and bureaucracy), is coerced to withdraw their support for the ruler and/or defect to the opposition – effectively deposing the dictator. In such cases most of the institutions remain intact, and the defected elites play an important role in shaping the transition. This was the case in Egypt and Tunisia.
The second type is disintegration which happens when the opposition totally overruns the regime. This usually results in cases where an armed insurgency wins the war, but could also happen when mass uprising physically takes over the palace as happened to NicolaeCeauşescu of Romania and Gaddafi of Libya.
The first condition, where the opposition brings down the dictatorship by coercing elite defection, is very difficult to achieve, in a situation where single group monopoly exists, unless the opposition is capable of maintaining strict nonviolent discipline. In a two-way violence, by the time the opposition has been able to mount such coercive pressure, sectarian violence has reached a level where the ruling elites have so drenched its hand in blood, that defection at that stage does not guarantee personal safety or protection of their group. The only possible defection is likely to come from elites who do not have kinship ties with the ruler. Since such elites are unlikely to hold a position of real power, their defection is unlikely to be of immediate consequence. In fact, their defection is likely to strengthen cohesion within the elites of the privileged group because it confirms their long-held suspicion of the “others’” disloyalty. Thus, such regimes are likely to fight until the opposition completely liquidates their fighting force and disintegrates the system. When it is finally defeated after insisting to the last minute, then the ethnic/religious group that has monopolized power and economy for so long risks losing everything completely.
First, the conflict physically wears out most of the economic and political institutions they have built. Second, having secured absolute victory, the new rulers have no reason to share power with the losers, but rather have full capability to expropriate the resources that remain at the hand of the defeated. Third, having disproportionately and illegitimately benefited from the old regime, and having supported it to the last minute, the defeated group is left with little legitimacy to demand benefit from the new rulers. That is what happened in Libya and is the likely conclusion of the Syrian conflict.
For transition to democracy, regime change through such complete disintegration and liquidation of the old system is least desirable of all. First, since the conflict produces absolute winners and absolute losers, the emerging regime is unlikely to be representative, and neither would distribution of resources be equitable. Such a situation hinders reconciliation and building of an inclusive society, and rather leads to a renewed conflict. Second, during the conflict, in an effort to gain the upper hand, both the opposition and the regime are likely to seek support from foreign powers, who have their own interest on the outcome of the conflict. Usually lacking immediately available resources, the opposition is likely to purchase support by promising access to the country’s strategic and natural resources. Such deals make the new leaders vulnerable to external pressure, and force them to compromise their priority and national interest.
Third, restoring security and stability is the primary task of any transitional government. Unfortunately, in cases where the old regime is completely disintegrated, since key institutions of the state, particularly the military and security apparatus, are entirely destroyed, and since rebuilding them is a costly and lengthy process, the country might face a prolonged instability. This of course poses serious danger such as breakup of the country and/or emergence of a new dictatorship in the name of restoring security. In summary, all of the above-mentioned situations are serious obstacles to democratic transition. That is why the prospect of a democratic, stable and inclusive society is brighter in Tunisia and Egypt, but not for Libya and Syria.
Which Way for Ethiopia?
Currently Ethiopia is undoubtedly following the path travelled by Libya and Syria over the last four decades. But it doesn’t necessarily have to end up at the same place. The opportunity for averting such disaster is slipping away fast, but there is still a slim chance to make a detour, particularly using the windows opened for new leadership of the ruling party. Both the ruling group, the international community and those seeking change can undertake measures to do so.
While the existing concentration of political power, rapid accumulation of wealth at the hands of the Tigreans, and blatant exclusion of other groups is an increasing obstacle for reform, it has yet to reach a level where it can block it completely. The Tigrean military and economic elites are still in the process of institutionalizing and entrenching their privileges, and therefore lack the capacity to threaten the ability of senior leadership to engage in reform. A cohesive interest group that can effectively resist, undermine and reverse changes coming from the top has not emerged yet. In other words, Melesused to hold a level of control that could have enabled him to introduce the necessary reforms that would pave the door for orderly transition. Such reform could have been a win-win for all stakeholders; Melescould have been able to negotiate safe and secure departure, his Tigreans colleagues would be in a strong position to negotiate and maintain fair share of power and wealth, the people of Ethiopia could have avoided the cost of fighting and would be in more advantageous position to build a democratic, stable and inclusive society.
But such transition is becoming increasingly unlikely, in large part due to Meles’ choices. He had been implementing policies that further increase inequality between Tigreans and the rest, and this has been helping further entrench the interest groups, and raise the cost of redistribution. As discussed above, the greater the inequality and more entrenched the monopolizing elites, the lesser his ability to introduce reform, even if he wants to.
Now Meles is no more, which leaves the door wide open. Whether this change in leadership averts the looming disaster or not depends on who succeeds Meles and what Tigrean politico-military elites choose to do. In order to make a detour and open up the system dominated by a minority group, the top leader has to have strong command over his subordinates, particularly the security apparatus. It is a foregone conclusion that, the prospective nominee, HailemariamDessalegn, who lacks a solid political as well as social base of his own, will be a subordinate of rather than exercise command over the Tigrean power elites. He will be at their mercy, even for his own personal security. Hence we cannot expect him to initiate and implement political reforms that entail redistribution of power and privilege. This leaves us to contemplate the collective choice of TPLF leaders.
What matters is whether they want to reform the political system or remain on the same exclusivist path, and whether they can reach consensus on either of the two choices. The absence of a dominant figure that can either succeed Meles or broker a successor might make the issue of reforming the system a valuable commodity in a factional power struggle. Factions are likely to emerge along reformist and conservative fault lines. Since reform with potentially redistributive effect would be more costly to the Tigrean elites, at the end, it’s likely that those in favor of maintaining the status quo would emerge victorious, killing the prospect for peaceful transition. However, if TPLF leaders avoid factional crack in the immediate post Meles period by finding a unifying leader, and if that leader can initiate reform and withstand conservative reaction, then repeating the Libyan and Syrian tragedy can be averted.
Alternatively, the opposition can also induce the detour. If the opposition can narrow its ideological and sectarian difference, devise realistic strategy, build organizational capacity and engage in practical resistance on the ground, it would be able to wear out the regime’s endurance, which would fracture the ruling elite. And such fracture is possible at this stage because the Tigrean elites still reflect signs of factional competition, and a strong interest-based cohesion has not been achieved yet.
I have suggested elsewhere that the opposition should adopt a strategy that isolates the ruling elite from their ethnic base. This includes sticking to nonviolent forms of resistance, aiming to isolate the ruling elites by avoiding generalized propaganda on the Tigrean population and by utilizing tactics that target the dictatorship’s Achilles Hills. However, sustainability and efficiency of such a strategy will be rapidly reduced if the rate of economic monopolization continues at its current rate. Because such rapid growth of inequality will make the disparity between Tigreans and non-Tigreans highly visible even at lower social strata , an appeal by the opposition leadership to differentiate between ordinary Tigreans and the ruling elite is likely to be dismissed by the population.
The other group that can prevent Ethiopia from going the Libya/Syria way is the Tigrean intellectuals and community leaders. While the emergence of Tigrean opposition to the status quo and its alliance with other opposition is a positive development, I have yet to see a single Tigrean intellectual or political leader who acknowledges, let alone denounces, the increasing monopoly of power and wealth at the hand of their ethnic group. And this undercuts their role in helping peaceful transition. Acknowledgement of injustice by members of the privileged group has strong calming impact on the aggrieved. Denial and excusing injustice adds insult to injury. If Tigreans continue on their current path of denial and ignorance, their presence among the opposition serves no transitional purpose and only legitimizes the status quo.
Finally friends of Ethiopia, the international community and African governments, could contribute greatly in averting the Libyan and Syrian scenario from developing in Ethiopia. Rather than being blinded by the facade of stability, calm, and order, the international community needs to be cognizant that the Ethiopian system is inherently unsustainable. Tigrean domination of Ethiopia is untenable in the long-run. Meles was able to postpone the danger through ruthlessness and lately by anchoring his legitimacy to the economy’s performance. However, while some are happy about the country’s economic performance, it has also fueled resentment among the country’s diverse groups due to rising inequality along ethnic lines. This is a time-bomb. To overlook these sectarian resentments for the sake of maintaining short-term stability is to condemn Ethiopia to an inevitable chaos with obvious consequence of a nightmarish regional instability.
Well the is the exact same faith of the Tigrean minority rule in Ethiopia. Unless they see the writing in the wall. Definitely, they are so boggled down in distracting the public with the building the Nile dam or talking about false Meles renascence they are not thinking of there future place in Ethiopia. No matter how we try to sugar caught it by taking about double economic growth. At end the faith of the minority rule is as clear as Libya or Syria.
How careless of you to compare the Arab Spring Revolution with the situation in Ethiopia. Do you want to be labeled “terrorist” and languish for 18 years at Kaliti prison?
I do not assume your Pentecostal religion allows to lie like this. Why don’t you stay in the church as used to pretend to be religious?
Thank you very much for the very informative analysis on the dangers of tribal-based power politics that excludes the majority. Nevertheless, I have one simple question for you. Why didn’t you say anything on its implication to Ethiopia and the TPLF one-ethnic-group hegemony? Why didn’t you want to commit yourself on the situation in Ethiopia, which is very similar to what you have described?
May be you think that Ethiopians should have guessed and known by themselves your position on Ethiopian politics. Nevertheless, I believe that they would have liked very much to read your first hand opinion, as an analyzer of Ethiopian politics, which I believe would have been very intresting.
Your article is informative;thank you very much. The situations which were prevalent in Libya and Syria are very much similar to the current political dominance by Tigrean minorities. Therefore the fate of Woyanes will be the same is that of Gaddafi.
Jawar is challenging in his views. But he asked real important questions.
One of the many questions one wants to get answers about is: will Ethiopia remain divided? Will Africa come to its own Spring? Will Africa develop a big change and modernization? Will Africa vision its people as an asset or as liabilities?
I am hoping Jawar eventually come to write big essays on Africa and Middle East relationships. He will be bold but very informative and critical analyst as well as synthetist.
Jaward wanted to find common principle or predictors of revolutions, their consequences and their fates. Which is a hard thing to do. Of course, poverty is one major factor that leads to rebelion. We will see how Meles regime and his leftovers will distribute wealth as in the case of Syria.
Keep up with a broader view of Ethiopia and how changes could affect the rest of horn and Africa at large. I love big thinkers who transcend boundaries and who care about injustice and peace. I hope we have a responsibility to nurture this young talents who are completely indpendent of old generation political analysts. This is refreshing. I now no other political philosopher who ventures outside of Ethiopia , not the Addis Ababa University professors. That is because of their different outlook of Ethiopia as an Island with no allies in the other world.
Although Syrians are away from us, we the new generations now about it on a daily basis. But little is being said about the why. I think ESAT needs to give special coverage to world affairs that can inform our people to feel they are also part of the change. I hope ESAT will hire him as regular commentator for its people back home. We need to be part of modern society and we can not expect Wayane to change Ethiopia. Simply Wayane is not our bet for future stable Ethiopia. We need a new world order of the horn.
My advise for Jawar is continue your good job, Ethiopia needs big thinker who will also contribute to other people specially Africa.
Fantabulous analysis! We Ethiopians have to learn much from this. May God allow us to take lessons and save our country and people from such kind of devastation.
The situation in the Arab world and how their leaders were/are running their respective countries is not remotely comparable to the realities in Ethiopia. I know you are implying it but that’s not true. Araba ena Kobo. As the saying goes “Wusha min agebaw kersha?". Just because Aljazira brings you on as an analyst, it doesn’t mean that you are actually an expert. And last time I checked, the new PM is from Wolayta. Something similar to the Arab spring will never happen in Ethiopia and there is a reason for it. These guys were able to accomplish in just the last 10 years what their predecessors were unable to do in the previous 100 years and the Ethiopian people acknowledge that, as it was manifested the last few weeks. Just because few in the diaspora wish for it to happen wouldn’t magically lead to it. The locals are happy with the way the country is being run and therefore don’t have the incentive to revolt.
I don’t know how long the writer lived in Arab countries but he is still dreaming the so called Arab spring. I am tired and sick of idiots like the writer who doesn’t acknowledge the progress that have been made in Ethiopia for the last 20 years. don’t compare our beloved country to those Arab countries. first we are black and proud. second, there is no room for idiots like you that left Ethiopia with Mengistu. third, Even though Meles passed away, the ruling party is still in control. fourth you and your poppets will never be in power again.well why don’t you stay in Arab countries?? oh I forgot to them you are a nigger.
Arabs speak one language, Eths not.
Arabs are more educated than Eths.
Arabs have more income than Eths
Arabs less religion divide than Eths.
So were is the Similarities, may be you can compere to us with Kenyans, Nigerians,
South-Africans, but not Arabs or Somalis for that matter.
here in america, there is something called freedom of speech…u may disagree with him… that is fine…he has every right just like yourself to express his opinion…that we love it here…we dont go to jail for 18 years for writing an article… that is what we want we want for every ethiopian..the right to express self…in the land of monsters unfortunately only u and ppl like u have that right…pls grow up… it’s okay to disagree…those of us who disagree with the policies of the government just love as much as u love ethiopia.. we may have different vision… that is also okay… that is what democracy is all about..agree to disagree and build a collective common dreams..
@ Aka not-true Ethiopia and Alemayue Lemign Tigray the truth hurts ain’t it? everybody knows what the deal is.
You just gone have to save your soul cause you ain’t fooling anybody we know the real deal! Your guards Aka US & EU slowly understanding your dangers agenda and slowly would like to flush you out! Your beloved actor frog face Melse Zenawie is dead! The ground is slowly moving you don’t even know it! Back to didebit eat your abeta! You guys are pushing people to civil war. You double face midgets needs to get the hell on out from our city and life.
A Pledge not to be silenced by the loud Silencers and intimidators!
David S. Sep 3, 2012- It has been one day since the burial of the late Prime Minister of Ethiopia, Meles Zenawi. Since the day that the world heard of his passing, the fateful Monday August the 21st, Ethiopians across the world, especially the ones at home has been in a deep and inconsolable sorrow. The guilt feeling of ifs and the overall understanding that we have not given him the credit he was long due seems to overwhelm many. No one in his right mind, including his closest friends and allies, did not expect such an outpouring up on his death. His family’s grief has become a countries mourning. A region’s hope is broken and Africa seems to scream in one voice. What an unfinished business. In such a tender age, with so much to give, without deliberation and planning, the one of a kind leader of the emerging country passed the button to the next generation.
The Eulogy of this great man was given by presidents and high level dignitaries from all across the world. One by one, from President Yuri Museveni of Uganda to Omar Al Bashir of Sudan, Paul Kagami of Rwanda to Jacob Zuma of South Africa, Susan Rice of USA to European Commission delegate, reaffirm what has been the constant team since his death: This was a Prime Minister with purpose, uncanny brain and a gift to negotiate. With a central team of lifting Ethiopia from Poverty and changing the fate of Africa at the same time, he fought an uphill battle and made a difference. For Ethiopian’s, this was an affirmation of our status in Africa. A source of pride to all of us. Alas, he is gone! If he could just come back for a day and saw the outpouring of Ethiopians, the respect he generated and the collected shame we felt for not recognizing his did when he was alive, I guess he would have said “I have done and people have seen it” and would have rested in peace. Well, he will not come back and we will be left with the heavy burden of knowing this.
For many Ethiopians who are mourning inconsolably, it did not mean that he was a person without fault. Not at all. He is human and he might have stumbled during the course. There are many issues that I always wonder why he decided this way versus the other, that if I had a chance yearn to ask him to hear his side of the story. I am sure many have such burning issues to pose. But, all his “failures” were in attempting to tackle the abject poverty and destitute life of his people. He has one simple but also complex task: to lift millions of Ethiopian from the misery that they have been entrenched for Melina!! Not a small task by any measure. To do this against the tide of near doers, who neither know hard work or attempt it but were full of excuses and sharp tongue to lash out against all that is good, who have a broad dirty brush that smear everything that has been done with one stroke. The sad thing is the majority was silent: those who support his ideology and path, those who are neutral and want to hear and see more to make their own informed decision were all silenced by the loud mouth of the few opposition. They claim that they are opposition, but I call them loud silencers; intimidators who do not want to hear anything except their echo! Can you imagine how much good he could have delivered to Ethiopia if we the Diaspora were with him in one page? Every time we see him in a meeting, if we were civil and discuss with him our admiration, his limitations and what we thought is wrong? If we gave him the chance, opportunity and time to be judged favorably by foreign countries and organizations who have the capacity to humanize or dehumanize a person/a country?
After his death, now we know that they actually had much better way of studying him than what we tried to portray him to be. Alas, for fear of the backlash, all except few never openly admired him nor allowed him to represent us in the corridors of the higher offices in much more way than he had already done till his death. What a shame to us; to a country who never had a president as visionary as him, as intellect as him and respected worldwide and to not recognize all this before his death is something that will hunt us forever.
Alas, that never happened and we missed the opportunity, he missed to see our love before his death and our beloved country might be the big looser in all this. What we gained because of him is without limit but what we could have gained with our support to his ideals is what we will never know but could easily imagine.
What is going to come remains to be seen but a unity that has been an illusion to Ethiopia and Ethiopians seem to visit us up on his death. May we have the blessing, the wisdom and fortitude to keep it like this! we should not make a mistake again. Let us give the benefit of the doubt to the next leaders and help them succeed. Their success should mean Ethiopia’s prosperity. Opposition without reasoning, intimidation to those who does not share opposition’s view must stop. One thing that we have to promise to ourselves is that we shall never be intimidated by those loud mouth hallow opposition forces who does not give a room to a different view. Difference is great and always a source of growth. What we need is this difference to flow in a media of civility, individual respect and mutual interest. If we do this in our future political discourse, Prime Minister Meles did not pass in vein. Let us sign a pledge of alliance to do so. Let us start a new and bright Ethiopia now!
You have raised good points but I think the essay would have bn much spicier if you included Ethiopia Tigrey elite in your analysis.
If you look from a political view point, the essay is comparing how one tribe or ethnic group dominates eco-politics of the nation. The resentment in the arab spring is NOT always the same among the countries affected, for example, Egypt and Tunisia where favourtism was based on loyalty and kinship. While in Syria and Libya ethnic factors are the main determining factor
I truly agree with you on the issue of Somalis and Arabs when it comes to ethnicity and religion. (100% of somalis are Muslims and speak the same language) Nevertheless, the case of Syria and Libya is similar to Ethiopia.
Tigreys have dominated the political scene since 91. 90% of all the millitary and intelligence elite hail from tigrey, the most successful businesses are overwhelmingly owned by tigreys, 80 of EAL staff are from tigrey, 80% of University students are from tigrey region, 90% of scholarships is awarded to tigreys, most diplomats are tigreys, yet they make up 6% of the population. This is the similarity Mr Jawar is talking about.
I think this OLF idiot is propagating his dream. Did you hear him on VOA when he was saying that the pm has died two years ago. I do not understand how this idiot is going to be a Doctor.
Even he couldn’t take the heat from Abebe Belew and Tamagn Beyene. He talks to Much. He always goes out of the agenda. EPRDF IS THE ONE WHICH LEADS ETHIOPIA not TPLF, YOU DIRTY LITTLE A–. We know that you are promoting OLF terrorist group agenda. If you want Arab Spring to Ethiopia in SUMMER bring it on. you are OLF PERIOD.
The Nazret’s ,you posted only part of the Article I saw on Gulele Post,please try to post the whole article so that the readers could have complete understanding of the points the author wanted to discuss.
Since the day of the Death of the Crime Minister ,Agazi Bandits have
been orphenised .Theer’s a Power Vacum in the Country more than ever .There’s a risk of a civil war and a Total Cahos .Time to the Opposition Groups to cease their useless quarels and start working hands in hands for the benefits of the country and redirect the fights against the Agazi bandits .As did democrats and Civil Rights activists in the Republic of Guinea ,Egypte and Tunisia .
I was going to write the comment you deserve, but by looking at your sad face, by listening the interview you gave on aljazeera, and reading this comment I concluded you are pathetic. You are not worthey of intellectual criticism.
The writer seems to echo the tired slogan invented by those clueless western journalist’s depictions of the so called Arab spring.
The whole episode of Arab spring is a sham and has already changed to an Arab winter. Tunisia is now ruled by fundamentalist muslims who are installing Sharia laws everyday. Comparativly the government they overthrew was much liberal and modern. The same with Libiya and Egypt. In Egypt they were arguing the right to have sex with a corpse like their Mohamed did. Their anti women programs are all over the wall for every one to see. Gradually they will change Egypt to Iran and will declare Jihad on Ethiopia. Mubarak was better than these bearded thugs. In Syria the opponents are said to be as bad as Taliban. In Arab world chaninging regiems is not enough. What replaces them is the paramount concern. Usually the opponents are not those enlightned part of the society but those who conspire in mosques and those who are the most backward people on earth. It rather shows you can’t have democracy and islam together. Islam is diametricaly opposite to democracy.
There is nothing to compare here with the situation in Ethiopia. Ethiopia is neither Arab nor muslim.
a well researched article.
Keep it up Jowar!
hahaha yihe enbur enbur denbara lij be-ejigu yigermegnal. Ethiopian politics has become the playground of children like this OLF kid. Arab spring gelemele yelem Ethiopia wist maneh. The situation in Ethiopia is completely different. So you think Meles the great died (paid the cost as per ur words) because he is from the ‘minority Tigray’?
He just died because he is a human being like you and I. You pseudo pente.
yehonk ekekam neger neh. The analogy you made in your dull write-up is erronous. betetam. We are indeed blessed to have enemies like this telba.
Jawhar, you have done a good job. Those who critics you intellectually need be appreciated. Those who curse you without any intellectual basis do it for money or out of their myopic view.
In other words, the same fate willl happen to TPLF but not without the cost of Ethiopian peple. Jawar is now trying to lgimitize himself by being moderate. I hope he remains moderate instead of foreign bought OLF. The fact remains that what will happen to the peopole of Libya and Syria is the question we will see whether they will be safe in 2 or 3 yeras after their down fall. Although great for throwing these dictotars.
I hope Jawar takes a lesson from TPLF and focus on standing for Ethiopia without agenda he sometimes tries to send as memebr of OLf and Muslim. Otherwise Jawar will be one and the same as TPLF that will divide ethiopai society further to take oppritunity of the bleeding Ethiopia is shame. it is like he never lived in Ethiopia
I have allthe comments that has been written and I am amazed to read all is writen against Tigray
Yet the ethiopian history is full of tigrean war heroes
whether you like it or not Tgray shall be in power till Kingdom come
all you you can do is blaaa blaaa
keep on talking as much as you like
but no will come at rhe war front
God bless Ethiopia
Guys, he suppose to be an Ethiopian peace loving muslim but his agenda is to promote islam extremism in Ethiopia and the same all old OLF agenda who twist Ethiopian history. Thank you Jawhar, we don’t need Arab Spring to happen in our country. If we need change, we do it in a peaceful way not a Syria or libya way. Our people are very peace loving who wants to avoid any blood shade. Why don’t you go to Syria if you are so desperate to see a blood shade. It is free and you can soak your body in the blood bath in Syria. Leave us alone man. We are doing fine even if we are poor. God will be on Ethiopian side. God will do the job even if we are under dictator regime. You saw it few days ago when two cancers were taken by almighty God. Your ill idea for Ethiopia will never happen so does your sick tribal OLF, that have the same principle as TPLF. Stay away from Ethiopia and be a slave for Arabs as a nigger and may be try it in somalia. At least EPRDF keep Ethiopia tight as before and defend our country from terrorists in every aspect. If you go and ask any Ethiopian in Ethiopia, they want EPRDF to stay in power regardless man. The people want security above any thing else for now. It is not like the human rights and people like you and other disfunctional idiot activists crying day and night away from home. The Ethiopian people don’t expect any positive out comes from exiled wana be politicians who get crumbs from Shabia; one example is your OLF and other Ethiopian oppositions. So, get over it. There will no be any chaos and blood shade in Ethiopia.
very werada, attention seeker, narrow minded tribalist and islam extremism activist person. Also he and his liberation front OLF not better than TPLF may be the worst to Ethiopia. Oh my God! Ethiopia have so many sick activists in every corner who knows only violence. This activists comes in different varities. Tamagn: a hipocrat, who was entertaining Mengistu while so many young people killed in front of mothers in his home town Gondar; now he told us no human rights in Ethiopia. Elias Kifle: Shabia advocate, brainless(with low IQ), a total ignorant, a supporter of Isayas, the worst dictator and preaching about human rights. Jawhar : a young breed of extremist, a narrow headed tribalist (OLF)but against TPLF, ADVOCATE OF BLOOD SHADE! WOW! All of them are useless. They don’t go no where. One thing though, they don’t learn. Ethiopia people are tired of them.
Jawar Mohammed,what an idiot!!Another OLF,ONLF supporter for sure!Ethiopians have nothing common with Arabs!Arab revolution happened because there were ruthless bastards drying their country dry while the population was deprived of all the amneties guaranteed as citizens!Anyways another useless incoherent analysis!U didn’t do your homework jackass,Ethiopia is not a one man show or a banana republic as you arabs wish it to be!!You’re better off doing weather report.
Thx Jawar, a very good analysis.
Offcourse, the case of Libiya and Syria is very similar to the case of ethiopia, only 5% chigaram tigrewoch control owr country in Militery, Politics, buissiness, welth,and and and. Look how poor are the ppl from other ethnic. 200 PPl were shot down after the ellection in 2005, this Devil Meles didn’t oppologize for that happning, and now he himself is dead, who cares. It’s your turn now to cry, you tigre elits. but we Ethiopians outer Tigres, we are sooooo happy that he went for good.
You tigres are the same ( tooooo similar )like the alawits of Siria and Qadhadhfa tribe of Libiya. If the upprising also happen in ethiopia, then you will see what follows.
Jafar keep it up, nice Text.
” This essay was drafted before Meles Zenawi fell ill and was put on hold until things clear up. Attempt has been made to update it with the new developments”
Well, then I am not reading it. I don’t think “attempts … to update.. ” are not enough for me to spend my time on.
1,5 million in somali killil, 1 million in oromo killil, 0,4million amhara killil need food aid while the ‘tagay’ tigre bishop goes to his grave covered with goald top to head. God knows how much tplf government use for the burial of their talkative leader. 21 years ago tplf were telling us how cruel were the leaders before them. Yes they were crule in having so much private wealth while millions need food aid. What about now, in 2012!!!! Does anybody doubt that God took those two crules one just to tell us enough is enogh. Let’s reach our people. 21 years of that talkativ’s preaching has not feed our people, execept the choosen one. But are not we all Ethiopians?
As long as tigrian support tplf, the rest has a right to support onlf, olf. Abolish tplf first before any tigrians talk about olf or onlf or any ethnic base parties. Who will defend its own people from tplf? Only your bulshit propaganda? How come people be so blind? Stop this none sens we got the gone, try me if you can bla bla. Look what tplf is doing to its own people and against other ethnic groups, then look what the other ethnic party trying to do. Why is it other ethnic’s pary looked as the movement anti Ethiopia? Understanding those parties instead make a better Ethiopia. While millions none tigray Ethnic groups waiting for hand out, tplf suffocate us by the death of two people and use so much resources. Is this the way tplf take care of us, the none tigre ones. Open your eyes!!
J. Mohammed? Mohammed was and is…
Is this little guy the permanent representative to the Arabs/wahabis with their campaign to spread the barbaric type/Arab type of Islam? This little Islamic idiot did lots of shit talk on Al Jazera which is a salafi/wahabi TV channel financed by little Qatar.
We know Islam doesn’t care even about race let alone Ethnicity that are with the same race including all Ethiopians are. If you are Islam, you are part of them. They see first and for most your religion. Then your sub clan. Then your clan. Then your Ethnicity. Then your race.
This is the Tactic the Wahabis are using in the name of Ethnicity the way this Little Muslim called J. Mohammed that his father/or mother wouldn’t be even an Ethiopian/Black but a shit Arab or something else is doing. Just search who is he and most importantly his parents and grandparents.
Islam is evil. It can use all sort of devil activities with aim to spread. Lying is the main and normal ingredient to the Muslims along side with migration to other places/country in the name of Islam to spread it. What do expect from them when they are prizing as a prophet and following him while his action was the worst crimes ever done against humanity even worse than Bin laden and his followers.
Just learn who Mohammed was and don’t forget about this little Mohamed secret agenda, too while using other tactics to achieve that.
There is nothing bad to humanity than Islam and bad Muslims. Look in USA and elsewhere. Not only Ethnicity but human race itself makes no difference. A black man with different ethnicity and race is holding the highest office in USA. But this Arab whabais representative is trying to play the dirty games he got it from that barbaric book they call it…
Even those so called Arabs with different Ethnicity, race and so on are not fighting against each other(Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Yemen and so on) because of these. But because of religion differences with in Islam (Sunni, Shia, Suffi, Wahabi, Halawit and so on differences). Can you imagine they would fight in the name of Ethnicity while they know there are religion differences between them let say Christianity, Jewish, Hindu, Buda or so on)?
The worst problem in Ethiopia will be the religion issue and that will be badly affected the Oromo. Because Oromo is the only group hugely divided with religion differences. It is 60% Muslims. 35% Christians and 5% Animates.
Right now This J. Mohammed is talking about Ethnicity knowing it is the best weapon to isolate the Oromo. And then he will wage Islamic war against the Minority Christian Oromos. This is the plan he and his masters (the Wahabis have and told him to do). But right now they are not talking about their real goal but in order to achieve that goal just using Ethnicity to isolate the Oromo. We will see what will happen to them.
Because some Christian oromos seem don’t see the dark and painful hell waiting them because of Islam within the Oromos. Instead of Clamping to this J. Mohammed who had his own secret agenda by being Agents to the Arab wahabis, they need to aware of about his motive and secret agenda. No one but they will be the first and worst victims.
Heny the Idiot TPLF
Cool down you are steaming to point of explosion.
Meles is dead and he isn’t coming back! It is over!!!
Time for you to find something else to do!!!
Read this site if you want to understand what meless had done and how the greedy shabians wanted more: http://awate.com/dear-prime-minister-meles/
የኢህአዴግ ሥራ አስፈፃሚ ኮሚቴ ትንናት ተሰብስቦ አዲስ ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትር ሰይሞ ለፓርላማ ያቀርባል ተብሎ ሲጠበቅ መለስ ዜናዊን የሚተካ አዲስ ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትር አልሰይምም ሲያምራችሁ ይቅር ብሏል:: እንዲያውም ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትር የመመደብ ጉዳይ “ለጋራ ዓላማ በሚደረግ ትግል ውስጥ አንድን ጓድ ይበልጥ መስዋዕት ይከፍል ዘንድ ከመመደብ ያለፈ ትርጉም የሌለው ቀላል ጉዳይ” ስለሆነ መስከረም ከጠባ በኋላ ይታያል ብሏል::
ሃይለ ማርያምዪ አሳዘኑኝ
Why don’t you go to where you belong to the Arabs
People like you garage 7 east Elias kaftan ar Maria
Have the same agenda to disintegrate Ethiopia, but
Ethiopians are more mature and civil than your Arabic
The people loves fairness
Dirt bags like you will perish
Another mambo jumbo from those disillusioned Ethiopian ‘intellectuals’ lol
Today’s Ethiopia cannot accommodate IDIOTS and FOOLS like Jawar, almariam, elias, tamagn,,,,,
The TPLF minority regime is now viewed as the biggest liability to Western donors their guardians that it must be dismantled, uprooted and thrown out before it breaks up the country and further destabilize the Horn region. The TPLF warlords knew this was coming their way as they tried unsuccessfully to break free from Western influence by forging relations with China to avert violent regime change, but they got caught with a punch they didn’t see it coming and got knocked the fuck out unconscious that ultimately proved fatal. Rest in Pieces Looters Chiled killers.
The implication for Ethiopia is very scary truth no body can deny. Also obvious is that those negative & comments comes from TPLF PR department- they use scare tactic when can’t challenge the the substance. Meles’s TPLF is not only a party that successfully transformed 1984/85 famine victims to millionaires’ but also systematically shifted the famine from desert Tigray to non-Tigray regions.
The amara tribe will never lead Ethiopia again ever.
Idiotic be it Amhara, Tigray, Oromo, gurage, wolayeta…..an Ethiopian will Ethiopia. I think you mean to say ethnocentric like yourself can never rule Ethiopia correct? what a loser lolll
Jawar is a muslim fanatic OLF hack. He thinks we are naive to buy his arab spring bs. Ethiopia is not an Arab country. Ethiopia is a balck African country with majority Christian. So spare your analysis for Morocco, Saudi Arabia Qatar or another monrchic dictatorship.
you couldn’t have been more ignorant… in this day and age i just cant believe that some ppl still think like that…it’s so dark…it is not your ethnic creed rather your character that matters… it just because they speak your langauge it does not mean they have your best interst at heart…its time to grow up and unite our ppl for common dreams.
Tigray and their slaves the amhara are the worst. We need non abyssinian ethiopian to rule. Hailemariam is just a TigrayPLF puppet
I concur with many commenters here who say Arab spring is for Arabs, not for Ethiopia. In fact Ethiopia is a victim of Arab conspiracy. It is therefore unimaginable for us to mimic our enemies. Jawar is clearly an Arab boot-licker and OLF sympathizer. He is also the darling of Human Rights Watch. His ideas are no-starter.
Hey guys, shut up those who oppose jawar , i know you guys you are racist. We dont care who hate him because there are 10 millions of millions who love him. Those who hate him from northern. Fuck you guys.
Oh We have been colonized by the so called folk of Israel origin(Jewish) extra marriage son tribe of Minilik, they are Shermuta ! Children of shermuta ,they think as shermuta! The want land locked or island of christian ! !! Stop insulting Jewar Moh hero ,visionry intellect …Actually'’little mind discuss about individual great mind mind discuss idea’
Everything he says and brings on for discussion doesn’t make any sense for any rational human being. I don’t understand his intentions. One thing is certain. He is ‘O-ne-g’. Arab Spring? Seriously??? How disappointed I am every time I see him with ‘Political Analyst’ Title. Is this title given to anyone who lives on their own dreams and publicly present their non-sense thoughts??? Shame on you!
It is not about hating Jawar but, the many nonsense ideas he is occupied with. Comparing an African state with those of fucking arabs simply bullshit. He is trying to create similarities between apple and orange, that is nonsense.
Ethiopia is far ahead of the Syrian situation thinking Ethiopia is like Syria is crazy.
Black God you are right, they r sharmuxa. They just insult Jawar Mohammed because of his name and tribe. As you mentioned they wanna lead the country again with israel agenda. That will happen after all of us died. If you fight for freedom as ethiopian, they name you olf or muslim terrorist. If olf is a terrorist, what about tplf? Everybody knows that howmuch these old regime followers hate us.
Feel free and don’t give attention to these idiots. They don’t have respect and integrity for themselves. We can learn more how much they filled with hate towards Islam and our OLF. Long live OLF, ONLF and other freedom fighters!!
Great article from a great mind. The TPLF hooligans are afraid of one thing more than any other and that is the truth. I can see them having nightmares after nightmares until the D day. Just watch, what goes around comes around. It will happen. The only question is how soon. Mark my word.
Jawar Mohammed is an amateur with a shallow understanding of the topic he has chosen to discuss.
Here is a brief list of questions that can arise with regard to this article:
1) Part of the title of this article is: “The Long-term cost of minority dominated dictatorship”. Is this a tacit acceptance by the author that there is no cost associated with a majority dominated dictatorship? Is a majority dominated dictatorship better than a minority dominated dictatorship?
2)Is this article trying to compare the Qadhadhfa tribe and the Alawi religious sect with the Tigray nation?
The Tigray nation is the foundation stone of Ethiopia. It is where the Axum Empire of Ethiopian and ‘Eritrean’ history was founded.
Tigray is not a tribe; it is a nation that stood at the forefront of the defence of Ethiopian sovereignty and has paid a heavy price in the process.
Who outsmarted and beat the Egyptian invaders twice at Guraa (Akele Guzay, Eritrea) and Gundet (Serae, Eritrea) and chased the Mahadist fanatic Osman Dikna all the way from Barka (Eritrea) to the Sudan? Who humiliated the Italians at Dogali (Eritrea)? Who brought the traitorous Ras Woldemichael Solomon of Hazega (Hamasien province, Eritrea) to Adwa in chains?
Who was Chief of Staff of the Ethiopian army at the battle of Adwa? It is none other than Shaleka Alula Engda (later Ras Alula), the son of a poor Tigrean, Ethiopian peasant who rose to prominence by sheer natural intelligence.
Tigray has been devastated demographically economically so many times as it has borne the brunt of foreign invasions. To be poor is no crime. But to be rich and unpatriotic is the worst crime.
Can comparing Tigray with an insignificant tribe or a minor, obscure and an insecure religious sect be rational? It is total ignorance.
Tigreans are not a secretive and an exclusive sect. In the melting pots of Ethiopian towns and cities, they have intermarried with many ethnic groups of Ethiopia such as their first cousins the Amharas, their adopted brothers the Oromos and so on. They are an inseparable part of the intricate fabric of present day Ethiopian society.
3)Is the Arab spring about democracy? Far from it! Why are then the Salafists and the Muslim Brotherhood coming to ascendance in Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya and now in Syria?
Muslim Arabs have always been ruled by dictators. Muhammad was the greatest dictators of them all. Any Muslim who follows Muhammad and the Qur’an faithfully has no choice but to have a dictatorial disposition. Abu Bakr, Omar, Uthman, Ali, Muawiyah and all the other Caliphs who came later were uncouth dictators.
Furthermore, tribalism is nothing new in Arab society. Even after the rise of Islam, Arabs have never abandoned tribalism. That is why at one point the Arab Caliphs needed the non-Arab Turks and Mamlukes in their armies because they are not tied to any Arab tribe.
Even the split between the Shi’as and the Sunnis has clannish origins. Ali is from the Banu Hashim clan but Muawiyah is from the Ummiyad.
I meant to say:
Tigray has been devastated demographically and economically …
@marcus u r amater lier coz minority is defined in number not in their stupidity or gentility !!! In the first place i don’t think u’r ethiopian,u r eritrean ! !!!
You described the author of this article as an amateur, then it did not take you long before you started talking about Islam and Islamic history. Ar’t you an amateur in this field?
1) You described prophet Mohamed as a dictator.
Nay. You are absolutely wrong in this. None of the European orientalist has ever described prophet Mohamed as a dictator.
It is all-known that he followed a written constitution - The Koran - which he did not contravene a single time. He consulted his companions whenever there is no clear-cut approach to certain events. There are so many cases in the Seerah where the prophet followed a simple man’s advice, or the advice of the majority. None of the European orientalists has ever described him as a dictator, who are you to say that, after 14 centuries?
You would a better job in glorifying Tigray and Tigreans.
2) You described Abu Bakr, Omar, Uthman, Ali, Muawiyah as uncouth dictators.
That you put the five leaders in the same list, it again shows your lack of knowledge in Islamic history. The first four are called Alkhulafaa Arrashidoon or the rightly guided Caliphs. They followed the written constitution i.e the Koran and the Sunnah. when new problems arise, they followed the Shuras system. Did you ever hear about The Islamic Shuraa system? It is a full-fledged mutual consultation within the boundaries of Islamic law.
The fifth leader - Muawiyah Bin Abu Sufyan Bin Harb - was completely different. He was accused of starting a Islamic kingdom instead caliphate.
3) The split between Sunnah and Shi’ah has nothing to do with clan. It was about whether the caliphate should be elected through Shuraa system or through bloodline to the prophet(inheritance).
The Iranians are neither Banu Ummayat or Banu Hashim.
4) Is the Arab spring about democracy?
The Arab spring was about freedom of choice. The Arab people rose up, toppled ruthless dictators, and chose who whey wanted to lead them. I am hoping for the Ethiopian people to have the same opportunity to choose who they want to lead them.
Democracy does not have to be a copy-cat of the American style, we can be Africans or Arabs and still have our own style of democracy.
It is all about freedom, and the Ethiopians are yearning for it.
Some of you mentioned that EPRDF is the one running the country, not TPLF. OK, cool with me. Then, lets dissect what EPRDF is. It is a union of convenience between the TPLF (representing Tigray ethinics), OPDM (reperesenting Oromo), ANDM (representing Amhara) and SEPDF (representing the southern people). Where are the representatives of the Gambella, Beni Shangul, Somali, Afar, Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa?
The death of the Ethiopian dictator may usher a new era of stability and peace in Ethiopia and in the Horn as a whole. Meles Zenawi’s administration has caused unimaginable suffering to the Ogaden people, far beyond any of his predecessors. He has also played great role in creating conflicts and instability in the Horn of Africa in order to perpetuate his regime’s dominance and hegemony of the region.
The Ogaden NLF may consider this as an opportunity for the succeeding Ethiopian regime to initiate a new era of peace, stability, freedom and justice for the people of Ogaden and not to pursue the failed policies of the past.
OGADEN NLF will continue to struggle for the rights of the Ogaden people to exercise their inalienable right to self-determination. ONLF will also work with any progressive open-minded opposition forces who are ready to recognize the rights for self-determination for all nations and nationalities.
Finally, OGADEN NLF calls upon the international community to promote democracy and freedom in Ethiopia rather than backing a dictatorship.
I want to comment on the comments …….I was so amazed by the fact that any Amharic word can be taboo words (“Sidib)………look at the comments!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Great and insightful work Jawar. What a brilliant writer to touch both supporters and opponents. Go ahead and speak out and write ….that is what we cried for whole human kind for Africa for Ethiopia.
Slow down bro.
I can assure not too many Oromos want your brotherhood and I suspect the same goes for many other ethnic groups that are being decimated by Tigriyan so called military thugs.Just a piece of advice. Just Stay in Tigrai and help the original Ethiopians and better yet join Eritra.
Your head needs to be smashed with a rock taken from Tigray and then your body must be thrown into the deserts of Tigray and you must be cut off and you must be headed off. Your relentless attack on Islam is not being silently watched. Your fabrications, your rudeness, your low character, your snobish style of attack, your stupidity and your ignorance are beyond the sphere of a human intelligence. You simply are one werada Tigre who is totally using Amhara for your own parasitic benefit and you are here for one sole purpose and that is to inculcate the old drama of banda Tigrays who want to use Ethiopia and abuse it. You are nothing but half Eritrean and half Tigre opportunist. One day you claim to be Shabiya, next day you want to tell us you are stupid Tigre. No Ethiopian will forget what Meles has done for them. You are very toxic and you surfe unchartered territories. I wish I can face you so I can challenge you and expose you to your fuckened Tigre how you are such a mischievious, self hater and lost mind you are. You are nothing but a very unprofessional and dogmatic idiot. No one will be hear to follow your idiot ideas on how Tigres are noble. Tigres with the exception of some good Axum Kings were total failures to Ethiopia. You are now claimiing Tigres are melting pots of Ethiopia? What will be your stories?
Now, Juwar Mohammed has no need to post his articles to the stupidies of all visitors on this website. They are simply paranoid people and they refuse to accept reality. Who can explain why some Ethiopians have light skin? How can one explain the long nose of Haileselasie? Who can explain the bereze (mix) intermediate facial color of Ethiopians? Who can explain why cities are much more mixed in color than the rural dark skinned farmers of Wollo or Afar nomads? Who can tell me where the genes came from is it from Menelik I or Italian invasion or is is Arab settlement pre Axumite?
To dismay of many Muslims, marcus the insane hero of Tigray wrote:
“Even the split between the Shi’as and the Sunnis has clannish origins. Ali is from the Banu Hashim clan but Muawiyah is from the Ummiyad.”
Stupid marcus, you have not done your assignment on Islam 101. Shia simply splitted from Sunni because they hated Muawiya. Muawiya claimed Calpiphate and his father later converted to Islam was the most harsh opponent of Islam. He fought many wars against Muslims upon his insistence.His wife the mother of Muawiya ate the liver of the uncle of Prophet Mohammed upon death he fought against her husband as he killed her brother in a previous war.To any person’s knowledge tribalism was in no one’s mind when this split occured. It was purely love and spiritual ties to Ali by Shia.
Shia regard Muawiya as cursed in many ways, but Sunnis refuse to conclude that way. In fact, Ali, may his soul rest in peace, opined about Muawiya as lost brothers or astrayed brothers in Islam who did not see the right way. He did not call them Kafirs. Yes, they did some erroneous things. But after conversion his father served Islam to his best. Any ways, tribalism was the least one can even think of at the time.
he Shia vilify Muāwiyya. His supposed conversion to Islam before the conquest of Mecca is dismissed as a fable, or mere hypocrisy. He is said to have opposed Alī, the rightful Caliph, out of sheer greed for power and wealth. According to Shia Muslim belief, his reign opened the door to unparalleled disaster, marked by persecution of Alī and his followers, resulting in Yazid I coming into power, shortly followed by the Battle of Karbala.
3.1 Transcriber of Qur’an
4.1 Killed Sahabas
5 See also
There exists no sahih narration in where Muhammad praises Muʻāwiyya as a sign of Muʻāwiyyas lack of good qualities, and in fact, Shi’a quote Sunni hadith where Muhammad is supposed to have cursed Muawiyah and prophesied Muawiya not being resurrected with Muhammad on the resurrection day:
Muawiya’s mother, Hind bint Utbah, was promiscuous; he was not the son of his supposed father, Abu Sufyan . Hind was an inveterate enemy of Muhammad and the Muslims; she ate the liver of Muhammad’s uncle Hamza after the Battle of Uhud.
Muawiya converted to Islam only when it was politically convenient and his “conversion” was superficial only.
He opposed Ali, the rightful Caliph, out of sheer greed for power and wealth. His reign was worldly and irreligious. He not only opposed Ali, but persecuted his followers. During his reign, Muslims attending prayers in the mosque were required to curse Ali as part of the service.
Muawiya promised Ali’s son, Hasan ibn Ali, the caliphate after he, Muawiya, died; Hasan ibn Ali merely asked that a shura be held. Muawiya reneged on any promises or treaties he made with Hasan by making his son, Yazid I, his heir.. Yazid is also hated for his actions towards the house of Ali, in particular sending forced against Ali’s other son, Husayn ibn Ali, at the Battle of Karbala.
Muawiya killed many of Muhammad’s companions (Sahaba), either in battle or by poison, due to his lust for power. Hasan ibn Ali himself was poisoned.
Shia claim several Sunni sources state that Muʻāwiyya was conceived in a form of polyandry called Nikah Ijtimah.
The sources list four people thought of being his father:
Abu-ibn-Umar ibn Musaafir (or Musaafir Abu Umar)
Umar ibn Walid
Sabah the Ethiopian or an unknown fourth.
Some list Abu Sufyan as one of the four, other do not. In any case, he accepted him as his father. For this reason, Shi’a name him “Muʻāwiyya ibn Hind", after his mother whom they regard as the prostitute that killed her black children, became married to Muhammads arch enemy and chewed Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalibs liver.
Let me add something to the above post also about Muawiya. Muawiya is a brother in -law to Prophet Mohammed who maried Rukhiya bint sufiya. His tribe is the same as that of Ali, R.A. which is Quraiyesh. His clan is Abdu Ummaya and his subclan is AbdShams. Also Usthman ibn Afan the third Caliph of Islam was his second cousin for Mauwiya. He was the one who appointed him to be governor of Syria in Demascus. Thus after death of Ali he became the ruler of Islam centering in Demascus instead of being in Medina as it was traditionally. He fought many wars against Byzantine Empire although his fight never were conclusive with the city of constantinopole until the rise of Turkey. He did expand his empire but he usually manipulated the true teachings of Islam in order to suit his rulings. he jailed many pious Imams like Meles did. For that Muslims have some reservations for him. Actually Muslim Sunnis don’t regard him as spiritual leader other than being a mere Muslim ruler like Mubarek was. So Marcus how can you base Sunni split with Shia based on Ali Muawiya conflict? Any ways, Muawiya was never appointed as a Caliph. Muslims recognize only four Caliphs (Abu Baker, Omar, Usthaman and Ali). The first three were never recognized as Caliphates by Shia.
Ali is Qurayish, and his clan was Banu Hashm.
His Biography is as follows:
By the way Ali was an intelligent boy who accepted Islam at the age of 13 without even the consent of his families. This shows how strong minded and Allah gifted little boy he was. His fairness to people of all faiths is unmatched in any religion and his life histories is told to kids all over Muslim schools for he was unparalleled in his Just.
The original split between Sunnis and Shia occurred soon after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, in the year 632.
“There was a dispute in the community of Muslims in present-day Saudi Arabia over the question of succession,” says Augustus Norton, author of Hezbollah: A Short History. “That is to say, who is the rightful successor to the Prophet?”
Most of the Prophet Muhammad’s followers wanted the community of Muslims to determine who would succeed him. A smaller group thought that someone from his family should take up his mantle. They favored Ali, who was married to Muhammad’s daughter, Fatimah.
“Shia believed that leadership should stay within the family of the Prophet,” notes Gregory Gause, professor of Middle East politics at the University of Vermont. “And thus they were the partisans of Ali, his cousin and son-in-law. Sunnis believed that leadership should fall to the person who was deemed by the elite of the community to be best able to lead the community. And it was fundamentally that political division that began the Sunni-Shia split.”
The Sunnis prevailed and chose a successor to be the first caliph.
” Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب, Transliteration: ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, Arabic pronunciation: [ʕæliː ibn ʔæbiː t̪ˤæːlib]; 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661). The son of Abu Talib, Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of Islamic prophet Muhammad, ruling over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam. Sunnis consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun (rightly guided Caliphs), while Shias regard Ali as the first Imam and consider him and his descendants the rightful successors to Muhammad, all of which are members of the Ahl al-Bayt, the household of Muhammad. This disagreement split the Ummah (Muslim community) into the Sunni and Shia branches.
Muslim sources, especially Shia ones, state that Ali was the only person born in the Kaaba sanctuary in Mecca, the holiest place in Islam. His father was Abu Talib and his mother was Fatima bint Asad, but he was raised in the household of Muhammad, who himself was raised by Abu Talib, Muhammad’s uncle, and Ali’s father. When Muhammad reported receiving a divine revelation, Ali was the first male to accept his message, dedicating his life to the cause of Islam.
Ali migrated to Medina shortly after Muhammad did. Once there Muhammad told Ali that God had ordered Muhammad to give his daughter, Fatimah, to Ali in marriage. For the ten years that Muhammad led the community in Medina, Ali was extremely active in his service, leading parties of warriors in battles, and carrying messages and orders. Ali took part in the early caravan raids from Mecca and later in almost all the battles fought by the nascent Muslim community.
Ali was appointed Caliph by the Companions of Muhammad (the Sahaba) in Medina after the assassination of the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan. He encountered defiance and civil war during his reign. In 661, Ali was attacked one morning while worshipping in the mosque of Kufa, and died a few days later.
In Muslim culture, Ali is respected for his courage, knowledge, belief, honesty, unbending devotion to Islam, deep loyalty to Muhammad, equal treatment of all Muslims and generosity in forgiving his defeated enemies, and therefore is central to mystical traditions in Islam such as Sufism. Ali retains his stature as an authority on Quranic exegesis, Islamic jurisprudence and religious thought. Ali holds a high position in almost all Sufi orders which trace their lineage through him to Muhammad. Ali’s influence has been important throughout Islamic history.”
Ali refused to recognize Muawiaya as caliphate until the killer of usthman ibn afan was found. The killers of usthman were claimed to be “khwerijis” one of the most strict in scripture interpretations of Islam and their love for killing those who never go by their path.”
When Muawiay fought Ali it was not because of tribalism but because of pure lack of agreement on who comes first in the next line. No one opposed any other tribe to become Caliph as long as it was made by Shura (council). Muawiya simply was arrogant to accept dialogue. No one dismissed him just because he was a Banu Shams clan. All three Calpihates were all not related to the Prophet Mohammed and everything went fine until Ali became the Caliph. That was pure struggle for control of power. In summary Islam erased those even minor differences.
Finally, thank you Juhar for writing a brilliant essay and keep moving and don’t listen to your ditracters with little knowledge.
To People of Ethiopia,
Since when have you heard Ethiopia being healthy in the hands of Tigres?
It is about time to rise up against the conspiracy of Tigres once and for all. My fellow Amharas, why you make me so sick by serving the more shrewed or should I say intelligent people of east Africa. I must admit we Amharas are not good at diplomatic works or flexibility. We are rigid and principled people. But it hurts when lawless, unprincipled gay people of tigray use us in one weak point we have, that is nationalism. We are ready to serve for who ever wants to rule us, like a husband. How many of Amhara people are serving now the interest of Wayane. Without Amhara intelligence, Wayane will be a dead fish. Now, why Amhara people are not standing up to this shintam Tiges? Why Ogaden people and Oromo and Afar people are not standing up? Why not Weliata and Gurage people rising up? The Tigres are nothing but the scum bugs of East Africa. They must be again thought a lesson not to wake up again for once and all. It was the last of 19th century we had to deal with them. After 200 years they resuscitated. Should we just watch them and weep all the time? or rise up?
People rise up, heads up and wake up. There parasites are everywhere.
Arab spring will not take place in Ethiopia. Because the definition of Arab Spring does not fit since Ethiopia is not an Arab country.Thanks for wasting my time reading on the wrong essay.
‘Gragn Ahmed’, the brain-dead but walking and talking Muslim said:
Your head needs to be smashed with a rock taken from Tigray and then your body must be thrown into the deserts of Tigray and you must be cut off and you must be headed off.”
‘Gragn Ahmed’, with the above statements you just confirmed in a graphic way, what I have been saying about Muslims as group of people with a mindset and propensity towards psychotic violence.
A Muslim asks/tells a non-Muslim: “Islam is a religion of peace, do you believe this or not? If you do not believe this I have to convince you by killing you.”
Muawiyah was a relative of Uthman and he was unhappy about the way he was killed. He asked Ali to investigate and bring the perpetrators to justice. Although, Muawiyah and Ali were both from the Quraish tribe, they were from different clans. One was from the Banu Ummiyad while the other was from Banu Hashim.
The followers of Ali wanted the Caliph to be from the family of Muhammad that is from Banu Hashim. Ali was related to Muhammad in two ways: he was his nephew and also son-in-law. What does this mean? The conflict, at least from the view point of Muawiyah, is family related and has a clan character.
Furthermore, Muawiyah had the support of Aisha, Muhammad’s child wife.
A ‘Mr Fair’ character said:
“The Iranians are neither Banu Ummayat or (sic!) Banu Hashim.” (You should say nor)!
I do not think you know your Islamic history very well. During the fight between Muawiyah and Ali, the Iranians let alone be Shi’a they were not even Muslims; as they were invaded by the Muslim Arabs just few years before that event.
The Iranians decided to follow the Shi’a line during the Iranian Safavid dynasty, 1501–1736 AD, long, long, long after the Muawiyah and Ali conflict.
‘Mr Fair’ also said:
“Democracy does not have to be a copy-cat of the American style, we can be Africans or Arabs and still have our own style of democracy.”
You do not have to mix Arabs with Africans to smuggle a stupid idea.
Let me tell you this though, for Muslims (Arab/non-Arab), Democracy is One Man, One Vote, One time. They will use Democracy to destroy Democracy, and to use a modified title of Jawar Mohammed’s own article, then there will be a massive “Long-term cost of Majority dominated dictatorship”.
Keep watching the developments in the ‘Arab Spring’ or rather ‘Arab Winter’.
Do you know why some ignorant people can´t get ride of the name TPLF even after Meles leave, and even no one is on the top leading position for TPLF? Because they are scare to hell and the TPLF dismantled the old dictators as they can´t perform for ever. And leads to an Ethiopia belonged to every body equally. Their ideology is also replicated by all the people of Ethiopia. And the dictators level any COMMITTED transformer as TPLF. Sorry but all Ethiopians are now transformers so you can call them TPLF.
I meant to say:
“Ali was related to Muhammad in two ways: he was his cousin and also son-in-law.”
Once in a while you need to come out of your cocoon and discover things. like there are families out there other than your Jesus family?
You can’t keep repeating “extremist”,“wahabist” or any catch words you heard it in the news like a parrot.
This little guy, This little country, this little thing…I can detect you have some “little” inferiourity complex.
Why I have a feeling this is little Marcus the Shabia dog in desgise?
If you walk like a duck and talk like a duck – guess what
Marcus the Shabia dog, the king of cut and paste,
Give it up. Eritrea is not coming back. We have our irreconcilable divorce back in the 90th. We can attempt to live as good neighbors once the “brother Leader” Kim ill Issu dies and his regime crumble but not as one nation.
As we can see from all your comments from day one, your main purpose here is to steer all the discussion to a Christian - Islam war. So far you have failed miserably except, to agitate a few clueless fanatics Orthodox Christians followers of you from the church. By the way trying to appease to Tigrays on both side of Mereb Melash didn’t work for Meles, and I don’t think it will work for anyone else. So Keep Salivating.
Dear jawar mohammed,
I respect ur right to be anti Meles… But why? Meles is the best thing that happend to Muslim in Ethiopia… He is the one who put it in our .constution that all religion are equal not only in word but in parictise… Today Muslim area such as Harar get their own leaders… They can build their mosque.. They can control their future and finance… Even they speak their own lungauage endless right..
U might thing this is nothing.. Nobody should give u ur god given right… My point is Meles at least recognized ur right even in word along… The first thing to solve any king of problem to admit u have problem..
The thing is they people who u stand with they don’t even recognized ur right in word late along in practice… They thing Ethiopia belong to them they along should rule her which doesn’t inuld u I mean u mr. Jawar. Their Ethiopia doesn’t inculd Oromo too,… I have a feeling u come from that area too.
So mr. U standing withm is like A Jew person standingup and defending for Nazi cause or palestinian person standing up and defending the Jews cause… In ur case as Muslim and Oromo fighting Meles it doesn’t make sense but u have right to be wrong…. I just hopping u making money doing what u are doing because it going to be long road a head and I hope u have GPS… Otherwise u might be lost
I am sorry I didn’t read ur artical the first time… This time I read the first few statement and I understand u wish Ethiopia
Tunisia and Egypt experienced I might say revoulation…u forget Libya and Tunisia and Yeman were more then 50,000 people died and their economy destroyed… People kill their own brothers and sister… Where Childers and old people died…all those people lost their part of their body… U forget the hell on earth… U want to cleanup the revoulation so that it can be palatable
My question are u going to be there when our heroic young start the revoulation and die with them? Or if u re old are u going to send ur kids to war front? U don’t bother answer it… I know u going to help by moral and leading by tactic if not sending $100 or $200 will do the job…in fact if the revoulation started u will have more business taking BS about it so I say it is in ur best interst for revoulation to start…
This is wishing u own mama to die in flooding.. If not flooding frost fire.. If not frost fire earthquake…if it is not earthquake then revoulation in short u are praying for devil Ethiopia to have upheaval… U don’t care what happen next let million people die let 80 million people die as long as Meles removed from power..
Guess what in sea of unrest Ethiopia is a very few nation in Africa that got public moroning… People cry for their dear leader.. U try to ridiculous that but the American also cry for
michael jackson… Great Birthsh cry for their prince diana.. This is a noromal people do… When their beloved died… In case of norther Africa some of they leader. Shoot dead, some run away… U want mayhem….
Thanks for Ethiopia people we send of our beloved leader with a lot of cry instead of myhem that u wish as for… Now imagan when one billon African watch is image they would wish if they have a leader that can even put at rest in their own country… Late alone crying
If u ask me it is like Adwa victory.. No more no less… It take as almost 100years to rest our leader in public moroning instead of running like Mangstiu or HIM God only know where his body rest. Yes we can guess… But we can’t be 100% sure..
Now mr.jewar u want to destroy this legacy… This is denying Adwa victory… An African victory… What Meles get is also an Africa victory every African nation must follow ethiopian lead and rest their leaders in respect..
It is only my wish the African leader get lesson from Meles and be a good leader… And they will be respected above death.
Thank you and I am out
Meles fought for the Tgray Libration Front and to establish a Greater Tgray and we like it or not, he is more than luckied beyond his mission as he gave the key positions of the Government to his landsmen. At the same time he opened all the gates for the tgrayans to disseminate themselves allover the country, interrelate themselves among other ethnic groups through marriage, own lands and prosper. On the other hand big fishes like AlAmoudi been introduced with Meles’s devastating policy to own a whole town-like land, displacing the ethnic group from their anscetors property. He also made the region of tgray develop by snatching our resources and donated dollars in the name of the people of Ethiopia and empower the people of tgray. Like the terrible Agazi Woman used to tell us frequently, the people of Ethiopia is forced to live under woyane regime oppression, terror and poverty and payback for the cause of the TPLF bravado. No wonder when we all know the open secret of tgray people’s intention that we are used to apparently learn from the horse mouth NO hidden cards are remained under the rug.
Dear Jawhar I am glad you aren’t Ahmara. Because, your article classic dangerous to the TPLF or Tigray people. But you are Oromo whom the alliance of Tigray people, because TPLF liberated many ethnic Ethiopians from the vampire bloody sucker Neftenga Ahxmaara. So there is accounted your article with the Ogaden Somalis, Oromos, Tigrays, Afar, southern hisbochi and Gambella and Benoshangoal ethnic Ethiopians. Almost all Ethiopia disliking your confused (Jahawareer) lost article. Who are you Mohammed? Ye Oromo lichi aydalahem wey? Abateh maret arso la free Neftenga ye wasado alnaberam.
At this point you should be thank for Menge who chop their heads those blood sucker Neftenga Ahmara.The day, that Mengustu Haile mariam 60 generals and ministers he chopped their heads, was the day that your dad and all land tillers got their freedoms
. As I told you before, keep writing but think twice of what are you saying. Tigray people or the TPLF are not the one who caused our people’s root problem, instead the Neftenga Ahmara caused the whole problems in Ethiopia.EPRDF/TPLF are struggling to clean the century old mess Ahmara lifted. If you are not supporting just leave it alone the EPRDF let them do their job.
So there is NO accounted your article with us,the Ogaden Somalis, Oromos, Tigrays, Afar, southern hisbochi and Gambella and Benoshangoal ethnic Ethiopians. Almost all Ethiopia disliking your confused (Jahawareer) lost article.
Dear Jawhar I am glad you aren’t Ahmara. Because, your article is very classic and dangerous to the TPLF or to the Tigray people.But, the good thing is that you are Oromo, whom the Oromo are the alliance of the Tigray people, because the TPLF fought to liberated Tigray as well many other ethnic Ethiopians from the vampire bloody sucker Neftenga Ahxmaara. So there is No accounted your article with us,the Ogaden Somalis, Oromos, Tigrays, Afar, southern hisbochi and Gambella and Benoshangoal ethnic Ethiopians. Almost all Ethiopia disliking your confused (Jahawareer) lost article. Who are you Mohammed? Ye Oromo lichi aydalahem wey? Abateh maret arso la free Neftenga ye wasado alnaberam.
At this point you should be thank for Menge who chop their heads those blood sucker Neftenga Ahmara.The day, that Mengustu Haile mariam 60 generals and ministers he chopped their heads, was the day that your dad and all land tillers got their freedoms.
As I told you before, keep writing but think twice of what are you saying. Tigray people or the TPLF are not the one who caused our people’s root problem, instead the Neftenga Ahmara caused the whole problems in Ethiopia.EPRDF/TPLF are struggling to clean the century old mess Ahmara lifted. If you are not supporting just leave it alone the EPRDF let them do their job.
Shove your Arab Spring disturbance dreams in your room shelves.
We don’t care for Arams and Fessams like you. You dare to challenge; then go home and face the reality.
Stop writing such a long long bla bla bla for nothing. This is simply spoiling our time.
PM Meles visions shall live for ever. Street boys who ru from a bar to the next in and around Washington DC like Tamagn Beyene of ESAT or Al Mariam, Elias Kifle of Eritrean Review; and Birhanu Nega of Gimmo-7 have no place in Ethiopia. These are sold out agents of Issayas Afeworki of Eritrea; and known to be obstractionists and talking machines; let alone to come-up with visonary ideas. The hell with their hooligan chracters picked on the streets of Diaspora.
I know very little about this fellow Jawar Mohammed and I googled to see who he is without going into details. I came across an interview he had given in which I read the following:
“JM: I am quite optimistic about the future of Ethiopia. The creation of Ethiopia in the late 19th century through conquest and subjugation led to unequal and unjust relationships among different stakeholders. The system of economic exploitation, forced cultural assimilation and political oppression made the situation unbearable for the subjugated people. The disadvantaged groups and their progressive sympathizers fought and began to dismantle that ancient system. Progressive forces hoped to remake Ethiopia based on the principles of social justice, equality and fraternity. They were smothered, however, between the conservative forces that fought hard to maintain the old system on one side, and the hardliner ethno-nationalist groups, on the other, that saw the complete dismantling of the empire state as the only way to solve the problem. The struggle between these two polarized forces has dominated Ethiopian politics during the last three decades making consensus-based politics unthinkable. Now, it seems that both forces have been exhausted and a new era for the progressive democratic voice is on the horizon. If this emerging moderate progressive voice can mobilize the silent majority of people around their aspirations for a mutually inclusive political system, and if it is also able to overcome the challenges posed by the variety of highly vocal, visible and organized hardliner groups, I believe Ethiopia will make a democratic breakthrough within the next decade.
A democratic breakthrough in Ethiopia will have a fundamental impact on peace, stability and development in the entire region. It’s obvious that the current regimes in Asmara and Finfinne are the main spoilers of peace and stability. If they were democratic, they would have no reason to stir up fake border wars to divert attention from internal crises or intervene in each others’ internal affairs; nor would they need to finance rival factions in Somalia and elsewhere. As long as Meles and Isaias remain in power, there will not be peace in Somalia or the entire region. Only a nonviolent removal of these dictators and establishment of a democratic system can change this, and such an outcome would be a win-win situation for all stakeholders. I am convinced that Ethiopia is moving in that direction and that it will not be too long before democracy finally takes hold.”
Well, I should say that I was really impressed, at least on this point.
The brutal Dictator was preparing the country for genocide. He required everyone to have their ethnicity in their id card and began transferring wealth to the Tigray. All the development you see in the country is Tigray people from Tigray and other places who split Aid money to build wealth. If your ID card does not say Tigray anything goes. It is utmost fear the county have never experienced before. And you find people like Susan Rice praising this guy - Shame. Thank you for this segment.
I read it JM is comments. As you said it, true he made points on that interview. But many other times, His (JM) articles reflect his anger and confusion politics. JaWara Anger and madness of his died Friend in the jail is obvious. All about his articles conveyed the same message of Anger and confuse related his loved friend, a role model of him and that is it.Jawahara, forgetting one thing and that is before the EPRDF who the hell, were the Oromo’s in Ethiopia? And today where the Oromo’s people are. They have their own largest state, written their language, respected their culture, religion and almost they have the final decision of the country’s political direction. Because that, Oromo ethnic is the majority ethnic in Ethiopia. If the country is 85 million just guess how many numbers are the Oromo peoples.
Ogaden Somalis = 5 mil,
Tigray = 4 mil,
Ahmara = 15 mil,
Afar = 1 mil,
Gambella/Binshangaol and Gumus = 1.5 mil
The southern Hisbouch = 1.5 million
Mixed/dhikala Neftenga = 1 million.
Hararis = 1 million
Gurage = 1 million
Total = 31 million.
Thus 85-31 = 54.
Well, the rest population is Oromos. No doubts that Oromo’s are more numbered of the government
Therefore,I agree with you that JM some times make a point but most he is confused and mad about the death of his friend.He need to see doctor for his painful of his lost friend!
Even as non Amara, I know Amara is the majority compared to tPLF so has the right to lead. Altough they should change some of their old attitude they cling too, Amara is the most moderate comared to ethnofascists such as the Liberation Fronts. I would rather take Amara than these people that are hard to read. I am for moderate Oromo and Amaras.
Brook, I hope what you said is true. But knowing the history of West…
I will post this site that someone posted above on the discussion of Meles by Eritreans and how to some he was a hero
U ask very important Question.
Meles fought for the Tgray Libration Front and to establish a Greater Tgray and we like it or not
U R 100000000000000000% right when Meles start he started for Tgray Libration.. U R asking him why not fight to librat the whole Ethiopia.. The short answer is why not the rest of Ethiopia fight their own fight why do u expect only the Tgray blood to spill…if Oromo want Libration who stop them joining the Tgray Libration front… What stop the Amhara from joining the Tgray Libration front.
The long answer is yes the long answer is u start from small. Tgray Libration started with three gun… Again u can’t ask the Tgray people to fight ur fight.
Now the question is if they fight for Tgray Libration why they occupy the whole Ethiopia again..
Again u are so full of hate u call it occupying In sense they did has a favor… Can u imagine leaving us without goverment so that we end up like Somila…I know u are just like monilia ungrateful.. U will risk every thing just so to see no Tgray ruling Ethiopia. They keep Ethiopia intact.. In fact it is not their responsablty to do any thing at all… They have full right to salve us.. Because we lost the war… When totally surrender u are prisoner of war.. U have only basic right..
U have no right to ask any thing.. Do u think ur old regime will hold power without any can of push from Oromo and Ogaden? U must be joking.
Any u ask another important question
Tgray looting resources from other region.
Short answer is Ethiopia have to pay Tgray people Blood KASSA..
Long answer is are u not the guys who are saying Oromo coffee belong too every one..so what is the problem if Tgray use other region resource. Tgray is full of cement when this recourse stated exploited it will be shared.
The fair answe is Tgray goverment and army keep the peace an order… How much Somilian and other African nation willing to pay for this kind of stability.. Billion or trillion or priceless… So in short the payment is for service render
Even if u don’t get what I am saying Tgray by staying with unity that is the benfit she gate.. If u don’t like this arrangement they u as region be it Amhara or oromo are free to get separated from unity… But kindly don’t ask other to separate from unity…u are free to separate no body hold ur hand…thanks for Meles ur separation right is respected.
Mr.wkup I hope u wake up
Marcus the wanna be Meles heir to the throne:
When Meles kills everybody Muslim you glorify him. When Tigres oppress people you come to rescue them. What a pathetic person you are. You have neither respect for Ethiopian people nor for an of its history. What you want is some gematam Shabia to take care of Ethiopia’s destiny. You are corrupt. if you can not be hanged who should be??
At any rate, I also found your inconsistency in your citation of the whole Shiism. I felt I should ignore you. But please don’t ever dare to teach something you don’t know about. I never dared to teach christianity. Please again stop meddling with religion. Simply this topic Jawar wrote about is about the Syrian oppression. It may have implications for Ethiopia for sure. But you are entitled to your opinion. Simply dismissing the Arab revolution as inapplicable to Ethiopia shows your shallow mind. Moreover, I feel that I don’t think your logic is consistent any more. Don’t we say there is always something we share with all humanity? Are we stereotyping Arabs again. Bill Clinton said here we go again. What is that you don’t like about the Arbs I don’t know. Get over it. This is the last correspondence between you and me.
Again, you are misinforming people when you wrote:
“Muawiyah was a relative of Uthman and he was unhappy about the way he was killed. He asked Ali to investigate and bring the perpetrators to justice. Although, Muawiyah and Ali were both from the Quraish tribe, they were from different clans. One was from the Banu Ummiyad while the other was from Banu Hashim.”
By the way our Prophet peace be up on him married one of his daughters Ruqiya to Usthman. Usthman was a rich person and it was known that he spent all his money to the cause of his new religion Islam. Now, this should stop any person from bringing the issue of clan or subclan problems to a great extent. Infact, both Muawiya and Ali felt they are equally entitled if not for their devotion for the religion but also for their relationship with the Prophet. But the conflict between Ali and Muawiya did not start Shiism at all. Shia was already developing during the appointment of AbuBaker. AbuBaker was appointed at the time based on his dedication to Islam but has no blood ties except with the marriage of his daughter to the Prophet. Umar also is bonded to our Prophet through his sister marriage Hafsa.
At any rate the only relationship in blood was Ali. Some people felt the first Caliph should have been Ali.
So there you go. These people did not consult with the rest of Muslims (Shura).
Please read the above for more information.
The sub-clan issue was the problem before appointing the first Caliph. This has nothing to do with Ali Muawiya issue.
Simply Islam removed the sub clan issue through appointment of Abubaker
Abu Bakr was born in Mecca some time in 573 CE, to a rich family in the Banu Taym clan of the Quraysh tribe.
Umar was born in Mecca to the Banu Adi clan, which was responsible for arbitrations among the tribes. His father was Khattab ibn Nufayl and his mother was Fatima bint Hasham, from the tribe of Banu Makhzum.
Uthman was born into the Umayyad clan of Mecca, a powerful family of the Quraish tribe. He was a companion of Muhammad who assumed the role of leader (caliph) of the Muslim Empire at the age of 65 following Umar ibn al-Khattab. Under his leadership, the empire expanded into Fars in 650 (present-day Iran), some areas of Khorasan (present-day Afghanistan) in 651 and the conquest of Armenia was begun in the 640s. Some of Uthman’s notable achievements were the economic reforms he introduced, and the compilation of the Qur’an into the unified, authoritative text that is known today.
Clearly as it can be seen the Caliphs came from different tribes of the same clan Quraish. So for Ali and Muawiya the subclan issue is moot issue. Because both can claim the legitimacy according to Shura any ways both are entitled. So, the Shiism although it began even after the death of our Prophet did not become an issue until later times due various factors adding on to it. But marcus even acknowledges Shia did not come until the 15 th century. What a moron!!
jawar is a racist bustard. your wish full thinking of Arab spring type revolutionary movement will not happen in ethiopia because the people of ethiopia was liberated twenty one years ago from the militery dectatorship. thanks to EPR
Df for their success and sacrifice to liberate the country from the jaw ow absolute tyranny and totaliterian regime. jawar get your story straight, and stop propogating hate. The ethiopian people are better of today than twenty one years ago. so my adice to you is to go to hell and never return.
After reading all reply to mr. Jawar, I happy to report there are many smart Ethiopia then me to fight ppl like JaWAR,
That means my service is no longer needed I think Ethiopia is in good hand..
I tell u if JeWAR is my only son and come out from closet and told me that he is GAY… I will tell him I will Love him the same my love have limits
Now if JeWAR come out and told me he want to study political science… I will disown him as my child… Never to speak to me or to stand up on my furnal…
Not that I hate politics.. But please someone help me… What on earth one can do with political science… I have no education but I can make Circle on JeWAR.. This is like a Jew studying the religion of Islam… That is good to know my point is where u going to practice ur study in Arab nation as Jew they don’t want u there.. In Isreal they might let u in but no self respecting Jew lesson to u..so what the point studing politicis Ethiopia are not shortage of politics What ethiopia need is a farmer, Scientist eng. chemist, etc etc.
If in doubt check what Africa or Ethiopia doesn’t want education list.
3. Religion study
The other day I was watching ethiopian review elias kifle, interview. The reporter ask ER. Where he live.. ER doesn’t want to tell the reporter the State he live in…mind u not his home address but he doesn’t want any one to know the state he live in… Guess what it is not for security reason but it is not our business to know where hero live.
Now our beloved JeWAR want as go Arab spring.. Guess what our beloved will be ready to report and update us second by second… But he will not go to face the musice.. So our two hero doesn’t want go and join the front line. So if any one follow them die I think they deserve to die.
This JaWAR drive me crazy.. He might be happy for getting more then 78 reply.. Some time u can’t blame JEWAR, if he write the same thing in Aiga forum or walta web site no one would have read it I thing the government side must attract this people if ER pay them to write this BS then Ethiopian government must pay double to fight back as of now the govt. free loader they expect us to fight for them.. Today enemy doesn’t come. With gun.. It come with pen so the government must put aside money to fight this kind of attract just look Ben web site it is all over the place. In Ethiopia there are best website builder they should get paid to fight back..
Anyhow if we get rid off mr. JeWAR… There are thousand idiot who is ready to take his place so it is wast of time to teach this people the best way is to tell them just try us.. They will not do it because they are only about talk.. As all
Hi, first of all the “arab spring” is
basically islamic revolution based on jihad and hate. Secondly, Amaras ruled Ethiopia over a thounsand years
and the Tigray people lived peacfully under the amara rule but why is your ass burning when Ethiopia had a prime minister who happened to be a Tigrayan?
I just cannot understand and it is so unfair!
Zak Ante ahiya, who told you that Tigray pple they used to lived in peace under the rule of Ahmara? You don’t have any idea dedab! Why you don’t go to the library and read it the book called “Surrendered or die” under the Author name of Robert D Koppel. Then you will know more about Ahmara and their oppressed cruelty in up North Tigray.
what so amazes me is this Wayane and Shabiya thugs who infiltrate this website as if they are Kebede and shiferaw and pollute the peaceful atmosphere. We don’t want the rule of minorities. When minorities rule they suffocate they air so much that everything is under your noses. The Nosy spy agents of Wayane are so bad. Yes Meles allowed Muslims to be equal but he changed it once it became trouble to him.
The reaction of Muslims such as ‘Gragn Ahmed’ and ‘Seattle’ to what I wrote is understandable.
Two brain-dead Muslims who live in the Christian West while avoiding the Muslim Paradise/Hell-hole countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Iraq.
Muslims always feel uncomfortable, nervous and hot under their collar when the murderous and ridiculous aspect of Islam is pointed out to them.
They will lie, prevaricate and speak with multiple tongues, no matter what, to avoid facing the truth. But this is not a surprise; they are only following Allah’s (Muhammad’s alter ego) commandments such as:
Qur’an 9:111,which says:
“Indeed Allah has purchased from the Muslims their lives and their wealth in exchange of Paradise for them; fighting in Allah’s cause, slaying and being slain; a true promise incumbent upon His mercy, (mentioned) in the Taurat and the Injeel and the Qur’an; who fulfils His promise better than Allah? Therefore rejoice upon your deal that you have made with Him; and this is the great success.”
At the moment, the main issue has been diverted from Tigrean contribution to Ethiopian sovereignty to the fight between two Muslim murderous dictators Muawiyah and Ali.
Now, let us go back to my original assertion which is that, Tigreans are bona fide Ethiopians who produced so many heroes in defending Ethiopia, Alula Engda being one of them.
A question ‘Gragn Ahmed’ and ‘Seattle’ would like to answer is: can they name any Muslim Ethiopian hero who fought for Ethiopian Sovereignty?
As usual, they will divert the issue to something else since there are no Muslims whatsoever who defended Ethiopian sovereignty. On the contrary, whenever Muslims settle in a non-Muslim land, they only act as a 5th column undermining the host country’s economy, security and law.
Warning! Warning! Warning!
My dear Marcus,
Gragn Ahmed has added another new screen name to his Gragn Ahmed, Seattle, Ethiopiawinet, Fair, and Shewa Mote names. His new screen name is BLACK GOD.
Dear Gragn Ahmed, why don’t you stick to one screen name? What is wrong with your first and hated name – Gragn Ahmed? You may cheat Marcus because he is new to your’ deception, but I know you very well for over four years, and in those four years I have known you as a deceptive and erratic Amhara Muslim or Somali Muslim or Saudi Muslim or someone from the Arabian Peninsula, you have refused to abandon the False prophet Muhammad the Dictator, Muhammad the Fascist, Muhammad the Nazist, Muhammad the Stalinist, and Muhammad the Chauvinist.
Muhammad the False Prophet:
Muhammad had never predicted any prophecy during his life time; however, the Muslims claim he had predicted the fall of the Byzantine Empire and the victory of the Romans after they had been defeated by the Byzantines (Quran 30:1-5). Muhammad had simply speculated and said, after he saw the overwhelming power of the Romans, that the Romans would defeat the Byzantines in a few years. He had failed to pin point the exact year, the exact day. He simply said in a few years. He had also failed to tell to the people that his message was from God. The Old Testament prophets never prophesied without telling to the people that their message is from God. They always said: “Thus said the Lord; this is the word of God….”
For example: Let us hear what the prophet Jeremiah had to say to his audience: “Then the prophet Jeremiah said to Hananiah the prophet, ‘Listen, Hananiah! The Lord has not sent you, yet you have persuaded this nation to trust in lies. Therefore, this is what the Lord says: ‘I am about to remove you from the face of the earth. This very year you are going to die, because you have preached rebellion against the Lord.’” Now let us see how Jeremiah’s prophesy had been fulfilled: “In the seventh month of that same year, Hananiah the prophet died” (Jeremiah 28:15-17).
Listen very carefully what the true Prophet Jeremiah had said; he said: “This is what the Lord says….” Jeremiah never said, “This is what I said….” Also remember the exact time of the fulfillment of his prophesy; Jeremiah said to the false prophet Hananiah: “This very year you are going to die….” And in the seventh month of that same year, Hananiah died.
In this case, Muhammad was a false prophet like his predecessor Hananiah who deceived the nations of Israel. As Jeremiah had said to Hananiah, I would say, using the exact words of Jeremiah the prophet, to the false prophet Muhammad: “Listen, Muhammad! The Lord has not sent you, yet you have persuaded this nation to trust in lies.”
Yes, Muhammad the false prophet had deceived billions of people as if he were a true prophet of God, and his followers, the imams and their likes such as Gragn Ahmed continue to cheat the innocent people of this earth. The Old and the New Prophets of God had never waged war against another country, never looted someone’s properties, and never raped or took someone’s child or wife. Of course, King David took Uriah’s wife and ordered Uriah to be killed in the battlefield; however, David repented for his sins and God forgave his sins. Muhammad had never repented for his heinous crimes he perpetrated against humanity; therefore, Muhammad is false prophet, a liar, an adulterer, and a ruthless killer.
Muhammad the Dictator:
To clearly understand the dictatorial doctrine of the Dictator prophet Muhammad, we must understand “Spoils of War/al-Anfal” in Quran 8; “Battle Array/As-Staff in Quran sixty-one; and “War Steeds/the Cow/Al-Baqarah” in Quran 2. These Quranic Chapters are specifically written for the Jihad war. There are, at least, over 111 Quranic verses purposely assigned to accomplish the Jihad war against the non-Muslims – the Christians, the Jews, the Hindus, the Buddhists, and the many other human races.
For instance, the following Quranic verses clearly show Muhammad the great Dictator commanding his army to terrorize and kill the non-Muslims:
1. “2:191: Kill them where ever you find them, and drive them out of whatever place from which they have driven you, which is worse than murder.”
2. “9:123: Believers, fight the unbelievers who are near you and let them find you to be tough and hard.”
3. “8:12: Then your Lord spoke to His Angels and said, “I will be with you. Give strength to the believers. I will send terror into the unbelievers’ hearts, cut off their heads and even the tips of their fingers.”
Muhammad himself in person had led over 64 military operations; especially noticeable military operations in Islamic history by the Dictator Muhammad the False prophet are: the Raid of Waddan, the Raid of Buwat, and the Battle of Badr. In those battles, Dictator Muhammad had slaughtered thousands of innocent civilian, enslaved women and children, and looted their properties. For this and other offensive crimes of Muhammad the Dictator, he is definitely qualified to be given the title of Dictatorship, and he is a Dictator. Not only this, Muhammad also commanded every Muslim man to posses four wives and many captive slave women, He ordered his son-in-law to divorce his wife and give his wife to Muhammad. He declared Muslim men are superior to Muslim women. Muhammad was indeed a Dictator!
Muhammad the Fascist:
When one sees the word “fascist,” what comes to his mind is Benito Mussolini, the founder of “fascism.” Fascism glorifies race and its founder Mussolini. Islam glorifies the Arabic race and its founder Muhammad the Fascist (“The Arab supremacism and anti-Black racism were not simply the divine writ in Islam to sit idle; they were a living reality since the early time of Islam to the present day. Today, the Middle East Arabs treat their Muslim coreligionists from countries like Bangladesh or Africa with contempt and belittlement. Famous Islamic scholar Ignaz Goldziher, out of his ignorance of the Quranic scruples, also thought that Islam taught unequivocal equality of all Muslims before God. Goldziher is, therefore, unnecessarily at pain for the Arabs’ historical disregard for Islam’s alleged equality for all, as he says, ‘the Muslim teachings of the equality of all men in Islam remained a dead letter for a long time, never realized in the consciousness of Arabs, and roundly denied in their day to day behaviour.’” [Goldziher, I (1967) Muslim Studies, p. 98]
Like fascism, Muhammad’s Islam embodies oppression and suppression through terror and terrorism. Fascism believes “neither in the possibility nor the utility of perpetual peace.” In the same way, Islam emphasizes constant war until its goal – domination of the entire world is realized through Jihad. Fascism opposes democracy and calls it “the myth of happiness,” and Islam is incompatible with democracy. As a result, we don’t see any democratic nations in the Arab-Muslim world except Turkey, thanks to Mr. Ataturk who forced the Turkish people to accept westernization – democracy.
Fascism believes in a State that every person in Italy belongs not to himself but to the State. In the same way Islam believes that every Muslim belongs to the Islamic State called “Ummah.”
To strengthen the Fascist State, Benito Mussolini subjugated every Italian citizen to submit himself/herself to the Fascist State. He even ventured to other countries such as Libya, Somalia, and Ethiopia to spread Fascism through military might and poison gas.
Likewise, Muhammad the Fascist conquered countries after countries and imposed Islam and the Sharia law throughout the territories he had defeated, demolished Churches, temples, and statues, and declared Islam as the only religion that came from Allah, and if any one messes with Islam he must be executed immediately. Because of his hatred toward democracy, because of his glorification of the Arabic race, and because of his suppression and oppression of those Jews and Christians, Muhammad the false prophet should be called “Fascist.”
Muhammad the Nazist:
The word “Nazist” brings to our memory Adolf Hitler and the Holocaust; however, Islam and Nazism are two inseparable ideologies like capitalism and market economy, and like Christianity and Jesus Christ.
Adolf Hitler hated the Jews and killed about 5 million of them in a gas chamber. In the same way Muhammad hated the Jews, called them apes and pigs, and killed over 900 Jews in a single day and buried them near a market place during the darkness. He continued slaughtering them until he died.
The following words of Muhammad the false prophet tell us his utmost hatred toward the Jews and the Christians: Narrated ‘Aisha and ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas:
When the last moment of the life of Allah’s Apostle came he started putting his ‘Khamisa’ on his face and when he felt hot and short of breath he took it off his face and said, “May Allah curse the Jews and Christians for they built the places of worship at the graves of their Prophets” (Bukhari Hadith Volume 1, Book 8, Number 427. In short, the similarities between Muhammad and Adolf Hitler and between Islam and Nazism are quite remarkable; therefore, Muhammad the false prophet is Muhammad the Nazist.
Muhammad the Stalinist:
Stalin was a blood thirsty person; he deported over 193, 865 Crimean Tartar Muslims from their homes: ten thousand of them died in starvation, and about 30,000 of these died in exile.
Muhammad the Stalinist also removed thousands of Jews from their homes in Medina and drove them away after he killed some of them, enslaved their wives and their children. We remember what Muhammad said to some of his followers:
“Two religions cannot coexist in the Arabian Peninsula.” Abu Dawood narrated with his isnaad from ‘Umar that he heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say: “I will certainly expel the Jews and the Christians from the Arabian Peninsula,, and I will not leave anyone there but Muslims.” Al-Tirmidhi said: this is a saheeh hasan hadeeth. And it was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) left behind three instructions. He said: Expel the mushrikeen from the Arabian Peninsula, honour the delegations the way that I do, and he kept quiet about the third.” — Narrated by Abu
Hence, Muhammad is no less humane than Stalin the butcher. All are the same ruthless killers.
Muhammad the Chauvinist:
Has there ever been any person who is super patriot and ultra nationalist than Muhammad the Chauvinist? Love, patience, tolerance, and forgiveness had been foreign elements to Muhammad the Chauvinist; instead, he was possessed by hatred, lust, power, greed, and possession. The urge to dominate the whole universe had always been the main leading cause in the brains of Muhammad the Chauvinist to slaughter the Jews, the Christians, the Hindus, and the many other non-Muslims.
Perhaps, the second super patriots next to Muhammad the Chauvinist could be the 9/11 Hijackers who killed over 3000 innocent people. Muhammad the Chauvinist must be accountable for the deaths of those peace-loving people because Muhammad the Chauvinist had promised such super patriots, ultra nationalists, super chauvinists, and super terrorists a new paradise and over 72 virgin girls. In this case, Muhammad was a False prophet, a Dictator, a Fascist, a Nazist, a Stalinist, and a Chauvinist.
Briefly, Muhammad had never been a true prophet like Jesus Christ, the Son of the Living God. Muhammad had left behind a Satanic Quran, full of violence, a Quran that teaches its followers the intimidation of women, and the killings of the apostates. It is time for all democracy lovers to stand up and outlaw the satanic teachings of Quran and the establishment of the Sharia law in any non-Muslim countries.
Furthermore, if any conflict arises in the future between Ethiopia and, say, Egypt or Saudi Arabia, which side will
‘Gragn Ahmed’ and ‘Seattle’ fight for?
Thanks for the tip-off, Assta.
It is fascinating and interesting to read this tattering OLF from ARSI, WHERE THE OFFSPRING OF ALKHAIDA WAS FOUND.
Eskinder Nega the actvist with full of hate in his mind was propagating one year and half ago the same until he end up in jail.ASH has asked you gooid questi.Would you be there when our brothers start the fight. If that is the case let’s go.
Moslems in Ethiopia have every right to worship any sect they want to and freely elect their own leader. We Orthodox Christians allowed ourselves to be lead by a senile, unwanted and appointed pop and leave our Moslim borthers and sisters alone for staning up or their God/Alah given rights.
Remember, divided we fall and united we stand as a nation. Learn to respectfully disagree with oppinons and ideas you may not like without mud slinging and name calling.
Think country first, otherwise as the saying goes “የማን:ቤት:ጠፍቶ:የማን:ሊበጅ፣የአውሬ:መፍንችህያ:ይሆናል:እንጂ።
tip-off 1 (t p ôf, - f) n. Informal. 1. A piece of confidential, advance, or inside information. 2. An indication of an otherwise unknown fact or probability. who got any confidential information about Islam, please tell us immediately we will reward you one good Eritrean Tabot.
But we know Islam’s Laws are clear and written down and open to all people to read. so, what amazes me is how can this be a tip off. Islam is not a secrete scoiety or a religion that can be manipulated.
When Wayane failed to divide its people it started to court christian Amharas its last stop to stay alive. Once the orthodox Amhara wake up for this divide and rule strategy that will begin the down fall of Wayane.
Marcus the Shabia dog from paradise Eritrea land of milk and honey,
You keep reading those fake history books written by your cult worshiping church. Apparently based on your skewed assessment your idol Essayas Aferwiki an Orthodox Christian will be the first and foremost to fight for Ethiopian Sovereignty and so do the rest of the bandas from Mereb Melash.
If we read the real history books, we find the Tigrays from both side of Mereb Melash are the one who guided and brought the Italians all the way to Addis Ababa, the British all the way to Mekdela. and the list goes on. Once a banda you are always a Banda. It is in your blood. You are main traitors. You only fight for sovereignty of Ethiopia when it suite you. Otherwise you have your EPLFs and TPLFs to break the country a part. Lemayawkish banda hula.
‘Gragn Ahmed’ and ‘Seattle’, you are as usual sliding off-topic. I did not ask you about ‘EPLF’, ‘TPLF’,
‘banda’ or ‘Eritrean Tabot’.
My question is simple and is as follows:
A question ‘Gragn Ahmed’ and ‘Seattle’ would like to answer is: can they name any Muslim Ethiopian hero who fought for Ethiopian Sovereignty?
Furthermore, if any conflict arises in the future between Ethiopia and, say, Egypt or Saudi Arabia or any other Muslim paradise/hell-hole country, which side will ‘Gragn Ahmed’ and ‘Seattle’ fight for?
The Ethiopian public already knows the answers to these questions, but I am asking just for the record.
ethiopian review elias kifle and JeWAR are hero… Or the poor who die in street of AA.. Unknown soldier… History doesn’t recorded the heroic foot soldiers story so I will not sirpirce if we know limited name.. But I have one for u abedi sagha
About doubting Muslim loyalty
This like a white American saying they don’t trust Obama… Go and ask Somalia and ethiopia WAR survival … While at it tell as which side are u on if Israel and Ethiopia fight.
Anyhow this Muslim doubting business is not yours alone almost all Ethiopian government fear Muslim this thinking hurt Ethiopia.. Ethiopia used to send Christian Ambassadors to Muslim country… Because they don’t trust the muslimso we suffer a lot and it cost us a lot we lost Eritrea and red sea because the Eritrean played the Muslim card.. We used to have problem with Egypt too.. But Meles send Arabic speaker ambassador and u can see the result..
So if u don’t want 55 million people resources just because they are Muslim then I can’t help u
By the way our enemy are not Arabs or Eritrea or somalia or Egypt our enemy is poverty.. Now tell me who is number one fighting this enemy..
I know Gragn Ahmed. Will fix u… But I want to talk to my hero . Gragn AhmedU see.. Meles at least recognized ur right even in word alone is a good start..this crazy people they telling to go to Saudi just because u ask for ur right. I can’t believe their adosity
Who are they are they Americans? This is like asking black America to go back to Africa when they ask for the right. This people they think they have more right then u just because they are Christian living in Christian land.. What they don’t know is America doesn’t powered by religion it is powered by an idea.
Let assume for argument sack if American have the choice to kick out the Arabs or Ethiopian Christians they will not hesitate To kick out Ethiopian Christians.. All American economy run by Arabs oil.. What they get from Ethiopia taxi driver and parking lot attandance and of course political science student.in shot it is America lost to kick the Muslim out because the Arabs will retaliate and kick out all American from their nation.. So it is very primitive argument to say go back to Arab country if u don’t like it here.. If Arabs is hell why 100,000 Ethiopian make it home?
Thanks for Meles 21 years ago Ethiopia were hell to..
Dear Gragn Ahmed, u can support anyone u want but working against Meles doesn’t help ur cause but it will help anti Muslim old timer if they come back to power Ethiopia finished as we know it.
So my question to u is very simple u admit Meles give right at the start…but he take it back..
U see GAhmed, freedom is not free… For all sacrificed paid by team Meles all they ask is to put guy from their side as a leader.. In way team Meles have Muslim too those Muslim also have the right just like any other to be elected to office..in this case I know Meles want to put his man at the top.. The question is not who is at the top but what did this guy did while at the top.. Did this guy did good job or not.. If he doesn’t then remove him but only hate him just because he is appointed by Meles is not a right..
Yes u might think Muslim have the right to choice who ever they want… Then u will have to go revolution just the back America did it going to be very ugly.. But if u want to fight this fight then I have no problem but ur right is given to u in golden plate.. I remember Islam growing in economy and all field much faster t
At the time of Meles appointed Muslim leader that guy is sharp business minded person…they remove him and look what happened…
Yes ESAT will support u to die for their case one u finished the job.. They will tell u they will take over from here after..so with all Meles mistake u better off with Meles then any one….
“A question ‘Gragn Ahmed’ and ‘Seattle’ would like to answer is: can they name any Muslim Ethiopian hero who fought for Ethiopian Sovereignty?”
That is a million dollar question for them as there is no hero Muslim in Ethiopian past. Actually the direct opposite is true, they have been bleeding Ethiopia with the enemy.
from your side,can you tell us any Abyssinian hero that was non-criminal Hero.All ur heroes were criminals my friend.Your heroes killed very innocent Ethiopian civilians.They didn’t kill
any foreign invaders.Historical your heroes cowards who runaway when the fight heats up.Remember,in 1935-41 during the Italy invaded Ethiopia and almost captured the country including Addis,one of your hero today was coward man haile selessie,who ran away to UK taking with him with all his family.While Omar Samatar(from Ogaden region) fighting against Italy invaders.
You coward, bastard from Tigray.Who is General Mohamed Younis,Samora? isn’t you hero and a Muslim man from Tigray too. General Samora,He didn’t sacrificed for Tigray pple and fought against the Neftenga just to liberate Tigray people as well other Ethiopians?
Never mind,we know that a coward is in every ethnic society.Where is she that AGAZi woman today?
“That is a million dollar question for them as there is no hero Muslim in Ethiopian past. Actually the direct opposite is true, they have been bleeding Ethiopia with the enemy.”
A million dollar question indeed!
“Who is General Mohamed Younis, Samora? isn’t you hero and a Muslim man from Tigray too.”
So, ‘warya’, you say this Mohamed Younis,Samora is a Muslim and also from Tigray! Then, wait a minute, he must be a Jeberti.
During the armed struggle, the Jeberti relocated to the Muslim paradise/hell-hole called Saudi Arabia with their entire families. Hardly anyone from them died during the fight.
During the Derg, the crafty Jeberti were backing both horses, contributing money to the EPLF and the Derg at the same time. What a win-win situation!
The Jeberti are mistrusted and hated in Eritrea even by the other Muslims. Their situation is also similar in Tigray.
Mohamed Younis Samora must have found the 1998-2000 Ethiopia-Eritrea war very exciting and profitable. He must have drawn great satisfaction from seeing the Christian highlanders in both countries decimate each other with the pretext of a dispute over a barren piece of land called Badme.
That is similar to the proverbial “killing two birds with one stone.”
My friend Ash, well put.
The Ethiopian Muslims are hero all of them who fought the coptic oppression of this lunatic Tigres ans some neftegnas.
There is no hero Tigre all are Bandas.
Extraterresterial is typical Wayane who thinks that Muslims should be excluded yet he goes to Arab countries and say Muslims are okay.
Marucs is typical denkoro.
By alienating Muslims he is waging a civil war. if we are not heros wh your ass does not touch a single muslim now? Why they are afraid of puting Muslims in power? Who was Omar Semeter? Who were the Afar people who guarded the coast, Who was Gragn Ahmed, Who was Aba Jifaar, who was hasen Injame, who was Yifat dynasty who chased copts of Shewa out?
But if there is a war between Marcus and his supporters against Egypt I will side with Egypt. If it is a war of Muslim Ethiopians and Muslims Egypt which does not exist I will side with Ethiopia. By the way Egypt fight with Ethiopia is about Abbay and is not religious so why ask Muslims over their religion? I am surprised and disappointed at how educated christians think about. What would you think we are Egyptians by birth and Muslims by Ethiopia? Sad indeed. If Sudan owns Abbay and Egypt wants to wage war on Sudan will you ask the Sudanese to doubt their fight?
Let us see if any christian Egyptian will ever fight for Egypt in the War with christian Ethiopia. If you are excluded from power you will have no choice but to fight for recognition first. Eritrea at least is better it has vice president Muslim and Arabic second language. Ethiopians are led by denkoro Marcus and what they do is alienate Ethiopia and further break the region into chaos. Arbs are slowly working in dismantling Ethiopia which is sad but it is better than that of living with Marcus.
We know Eritrean Marcus fears two things and that is: General Husien and General Samoura Yunus. They are afraid of the Tigre and they are afraid of the belen and they are afraid of Saho. These some extreme highland christians will be wiped out soon in no time if Muslims of Eritrea wished it. Just thank the Egptians who put Essayas in power.
Marcus is just dead person walking on the land of Ethiopia as agent of Eritrea.
Read this about Eritrean Muslims and how Yohannes IV tried to create resentment against Muslims at the time. Despite assertions of Marcus there were Muslims who did not support Mahdist Movement. But I don’t blame them if they did not. Italians by far gave a huge boost to Muslim morale and treated them fairly than coptic Kings.
I truly believed in Meles. But then he declined in his favor for Muslims because he was reading my comments I post here about his wife. Let me see who will govern Ethiopia withour Muslims. But the fact is Essayas may be using Arabic language and vice president to cheat the Arabs. But appoiting Haielemarioma s vice president is an insult to Muslims who voted for Meles. At any rate, we are not againt Hailemariam but we prefered him to be as such a Muslim. I am hping the president will be a Muslim too.
Ash as soon as Meles took actions against Muslims his health started to decline. We did not challenge Meles to leave office. But now Muslims will be watching what is going on and we will see if Muslims are going to sit and watch.
Marcus said “if any conflict arises in the future between Ethiopia and say Egypt or Saudi Arabgia, which side will ‘Gragn Ahmed’ and ‘Seattle’ fight for?
What a bushti bastard is(Ethiopian/Eritrean milato) question like you! You are that simplistic idiot pot head.
In this century even a child do not think this way? They can see things in different angels. Jil, I feel like putting passfier in your mouth like an infant in a nursery or put diaber on you like geriatric retarded confused man. You are a black dot for Eritreans/Ethiopians. This is what will happen when you are bastard you don’t have stand or a country that you claim 100% yours (Eritrea or Ethiopia).
You come back and reflect your complex on Ethiopian Muslims who have 100% pure country that was taken by northern coptic since 1887.
You think Egypt or Saudi Arabia will fight with Ormo or Afar or Somali people? For what reason?
Do you think Oromo/Afar/Somalis will take stand against their own Oromo/Afar/Somali lands by standing with foreigners.
I witnessed this kind of statements from you in your previous commetents and this is not the first time. I doubted if you are a mature gentle man with broader brain on your shoulder?
Are you paranoid demented ischezophrenic lost man?
No wonder you embark on religion you envy the most on this earth and you bring all these comments day in day out which is provided for you by the four islamophobic anti-islam organization that hired you.
Without this evil organization for man kind you will remain vagobond, street dewellers or a pimp as used to be.
You can not even ask a plain question on any subject except pasting evil organization anti-Islam propaganda machine comments here.
Another narrow minded fascist from Axum.
You really do not believe in justice and equality before mentioning a word about Muslim heroism. You should clear first you own mess at your home which is a black history for human kind to witness 1400 years plus oppression going on your own gene and flesh called Axum Tigrian Muslims.
You should be ashamed to call yourself a human being. You are cold blooded beast, merciless, dry heart, die hard fascist.
You want Muslims whom you kill, torture, jail and oppress them to be a hero by sacrifying their life for your pleasure.
You have the government in your hand. You are against them more than Egyptian are. Who do you think you are to protect? To rule them and oppress them like Axum Tigrians.
Read history and learn the meaning of hero. You can not stick heroism in a dirty place for your benefit.
Even with this oppression and discrimination of Ethiopian Muslims (worst than South Sudanese) since 1887, the Muslims bleeded and sacrified their soul for their mother land. What does hero means? Does it apply only to the ruling tribe who run the government by accident since 1887? General Bulie who liberated Karen from Eritrean, General Ali, General Semeter, etc. are not hero for you but for contemporary Ethiopia.
However, we have heros in millions prior to 1887 Ethiopia. Read true history and you will be shocked. Your heros are penut compared to Muslim heros. Ethiopian Muslims are real heros and they will repeat it in the future when they make you bite the dust. May be you’ll plead for outside help as usual. Yemen, Cuba, East Germany, East Europe countries, even Portguese again.
You really define hero in your narrow prespective of seeing the world like one religion against the whole world. This is a sign of lossing sanity. You better see psychiatric or brain surgeon before it’s too late. Hater extremist.
Dear GAhmand, and Ethiopiawinet
U right Meles have change of heart in the middle… My point is Ethiopian Muslim have two choice one to work with Meles full heartily or work 50% this by default help the opposition who only believe in their ethnic superiority..
They telling u Muslim are not loyal. This is not one guy opinion alone…this the opposition party Foreign Policy as their BAST… Hate Arab, hate Muslim, hate Indian, Chinese in doubt hate every one and trust no one. This people they don’t even trust their own.. They used to say Eritrean going to sale the Red Sea to Arabs.. 21 years on nothing happened.. When ever some ethnics group ask for right they will label u name. They call Eritrean who live in Ethiopia at that time separatist… But no one stop to ask what is their problem what is their issue..u know the result now they doing it again.. To oromo, Ogaden and now to Muslim they try to crate doubt about their loyalty..
Ask urself how one can Measure once loyalty. And how have the moral ground to question other loyalty. If that the case we have to have one supper ethnic group who is 100% Ethiopian who have the right to question other loyalty.. Or we will crate loyalty police who check people loyalty
This next to ridiculous at is best..
Late me give u few example to show how ridiculous this thinking is
1. Late take Al Almoudi (half Arab and half Ethiopian) vs ethiopian review elias kifle (pure super ethnic group)
Now tell me who more loyal to Ethiopia
2. Meles (half Eritrean, half Ethiopian) vs Mengistu Haile Mariam and all opp. Group ( pure super ethnic group)
Now tell me who more loyal to Ethiopia
When any ask my any one loyalty in sense he telling us he is more loyal then u..
Now u understand u can’t measure once loyalty 1800 century thinking late move on..
Now this file closed late move to 2012 century.. Thanks for our constitution…Ethiopians doesn’t measured by
Loyalty or by speaking Amharic or supporting opp. Or measured how much hate u have to Eritrea, Arab,Indian, Chinese,Oromo,ogadans, Meles, no ur Ethiopians measured by born in Ethiopia… If u are born in Ethiopia.. Or one of ur parant born in Ethiopia then u are Ethiopian.
2nd case who is a hero
Is Gaddfi is a hero? Is Saddam Hussein is a hero? Is Mengistu is a hero?
We find out how hero they are when they don’t have big and and big army and power.. They begged for their life..
My point is any one can act like hero when they supported by big gun and big army…Ethiopian pass criminal kings are no different.. They have gun so they us their modern gun to terrorized the southern Ethiopia.
Souther Ethiopia are victim of black colonization…
3rd. Which side Muslim on if their is war b/w Arabs and Ethiopia
The short answer is on the side of Ethiopian Muslim best interest.
What does that mean late me give u example… When there were war b/w American and Muslim nation called afghanistan. The they Muslim did not support blindly Muslim Afghanistan.. Instead they help American.. In short self interest of a nation comes first. The saudi arabia and all the Arab emirate sided with America even next door pakistan have to side with America.
Now are u telling me Ethiopian Muslim will support the Muslim blandly.. Again more example two Muslim nation that fight each other north Yemen and south Yemen. Iraqi and Iranian… Do u remember iraq and kuwait… About civil war in Egypt, Syria, Yemen, Somalia.. So all Muslim are not blindly go like hard without thinking or follow the crowd without checking his self interest.
So when I come back to ur question Ethiopian Muslim also powered by self interest,.so if Ethiopia and Arab fight.. Personally I will ask what kind of government we going to have if I die for Ethiopia,.. If the answer is the one who tell me I am not good enough to be pure Ethiopian, or they one who tell me one language and one religion, and one flag.. In shot seen as second class citizen then I will support the Arab.
Yes u can kill ur self for all I care u will never black colonized me again.
3rd. If u don’t like go to Muslim country.
This again 1700 century thinking but I will answer it because it will be learning moment. In olden time our father telling our Mather if u don’t like it u can go to hell..our Mather knows if they get divorce they will not take a cent from our father house,… In sense every thing belong to our father even our mother so our mothers they don’t want be homeless and stayed with all abused.
Now late come back to 2012 century our Mather half the right to half property when she divorce
The same way when Eritrea divorce from Ethiopia they divorce with their share of land. When south sudan divorced they get their share of land even with oil in it..
But our smart a** telling the Muslim to go to Saudi Arabia if they don’t like it here. Why not U Go to Christian nation Israel or and Western counties for all I care..
Next time u open ur mouth half of Ethiopia are Muslim.. If u ask them to go.. Remember all souther Ethiopia gone with them.. Ask pakistan and bangladesh if u don’t trust me.
I wrote this I wishing to change only one person mind but I know u can teach a person who fault purposely..
What King Hailemariam can do to remedy Muslim
For starter restor trust by appointing Musilm ambassador to Arab nation.
This is 101 Foreign Policy
Canada appointed The first Eritriean-Candian as ambassador to Eritria
Israel Appointed The first Ethiopian Jew as ambassador to Ethiopia
American also send the first black American to south Africa when they get independent.
2nd release all Musilm from jail
3rd the Musilm also must promise to work with king Hailemariam..1000000% and also promise fight the old regime never to come back and victimizing us all.
Musilm also be ready to die for their righ.. But thanks for Team Meles Muslim doesn’t have to die for their right all they have to do is give up some thing to gain more.. In this case if the goverment want to put their own people that is the price for freedom… As u know freedom is not free.
Ps:- I am not trying to change marcus, Marcus might be very old to make a change.. I am writing this for young people.. Beside even marcus change their are thousand fool ready to replace his place so it will waste of time to talk in circle.. All u have to say is come and try me.. And do u job.. Vote for Meles one man one vote if 55 million vote for team Meles.. Opp. Will never come back to wast our time.. As u know with out gun and big army they are not heros that they tell us in history class otherwise how come they are “slaved ” by team Meles for 21 years… All those heroic song is for make belive.. Nothing more noting less.
Take care… I have one more thing to write to king Hailemariam how he can rule better and fight anti Ethiopian better. Then I will go never to come back to this site… Beside very rare case.
Ash: Ask this doma (Eritrean/Ethiopian Milato) child the same question he asked the Ethiopian Muslims?
Didn’t he (his fanatic ancestors) fought the Ethiopian government run by Muslims in 15th century by standing up with invader Portugesse ?
Come on what’s wrong if I stand up with Egyptians to free myself from your bondage and take back the power as you did in 15th century?
Don’t you see how much you hate me and trust me none just not worshiping your idol. So why would I protect you to be called hero as your Tigri oppressor ‘Extrater’ wanted me to be to extend his brutal extremist biased rulings.
Do you see what I meant or you are still in childhood stage like your ignorant fanatic ancestors.
May be you think you own my land and it’s only you who can decide who is hero and who is not same with citizenship. Everything belongs to you under the sun.
This is what your crusty,rusty,dusty coroated, demented brain think. That’s why your writing whoople from one end to the other end like the bandas.
You don’t have slightest Ethiopianwinet in you but destruction of Ethiopiawinet. So I label you fascist invader banda who rule my land by force marriage.
I know how to smash Eritreans. Ash, my days on this website are numbered. Everyone on this website pretty much knows what they are going to do for themselves and for Muslims. I hope Muslims have learned from me a lot and I hope I have inspired them. Now, let us leave the talk and do the walk. Muslims need to know that there are not permanent enemies but permanent interests. If the opposition is better work with them. If Meles is better work with them. There is no single interest group. Our loyalty should be based on interest not on some ideological idiocrasy. But above all Muslims need to know that they have many enemies some with open hate some with covered up hate and some half heartness. Freedom comes when we stand up for our rights. Meles did change somethings but he wanted full control over our affairs. That is too much to ask and now we are in deep division and stand off. As we speak a lot of Muslims are being beaten in the jail at Kaliti. Any person who wants to work with Muslims must work by dealing with Muslim issues. If you ignore us we will ignore you. If you love us we will love you. There is no permanent hate in Islam. Islam is peace. But after all freedom comes with a price and Muslims should stop pretending that they will be free somehow. The world knows the Muslims of Ethiopia at stake. Let us not be shameful people by not fighting for our rights.
I am not asking for random killing. I am asking for the courage to fight on in the streets peacefully. For that we may be accused by government but so be it.
I agree with you on many points. I think ESAT is a little bit shrewed to exploit Muslim greivance. That is why I believe Ethiopian copts in general or Amhara in particular are very shrewed people. They promote what I call false illusion of love, progress, development and democracy and freedom. What they mean is under the custodian of Amhara culture. That is super ethnic ego. Although I am a Muslim myself and Amara I will totally oppose this. Although I am a Muslim and 25% Shere Tigre I totally oppose Tigre coptic supremacy over my Muslims. Although I used to be 25% Afar I totally oppose the separation of Afar from Ethiopia.
In my childhood, I used to say “Lebeyik” when I heard my name was being called in the class room.
I recently heard that the Samoura Yunus used to anger priests by shouting out “Allah Akber” inside the Axum Mary Tsion Church.
Well, I never wanted any dominance in my life. No body can tell me unreasonably what to do for myself. Muslims must rise up and stop immersing their legs 100% in any party. Always they should come to lead not be led. If the price is to die like Meles did let it be so.
Marcus the Shabia sleeping cell in Ethiopia.
Now you tell me if you Shabia dogs and EPLF spies are loyal to Ethiopia and fight for the territorial integrity of Ethiopia and I will show you the thousands and thousands of Muslims Ethiopian soldiers including General Samora who wiped your sorry Shabia assess and let you die in the ditches you dug for yourself.
If you want to know a Muslim Hero. The real Muslim heroes are those who isolated you; shut you off from the rest of the world for hundreds of years. No wonder you act weird to these days. If it wasn’t to the British and the rest of the European colonialists you cowards wouldn’t be able to crawl out your mountain caves and cross the Blue Nile to reach the hinterland.
Don’t tell me you isolate yourself on your own wishes. Rather it was the Muslims heroes of the last 1000 years from the east, south and the south who encircled you and cut your from the rest of world.
Sorry Mate, The real coward traitors and Bandas are the highland Christians like Essayas Afewerki and others who bend over to a white man for a few Liras and pound sterling. If opportunity arises, you solato Bandas will do it all over again. You will sell your mother for a few dollars.
U guys make cry… When we r united u can see what happened
Any how to answer ur question.
One enemy at Time.. Meles and Muslim have a common enemy.. So we fight it tougher
Yes we should stand for ourself and. Willing to die for our cause and be our own leader.
To archive this goal we have two choice.
Choice one WAR.
1. if u win u get every things
1. If u lose the WAR u lose everything
2. People think WAR is faster then peaceful method, but it takes 20years if not 40years.
Example America thought it would be a cake walk going to WAR… U know what happened
3. In WAR, million people die another million die hunger
4. In WAR, there is no farming, there is no progress only destruction
5. in WAR, there is no good thing only river off sorrow, and hate
6. Even after we win the WAR,u can’t win.. Just check Eritrea
7. In WAR, no countries trun to democrcy if u know one late me know.
Choice two peaceful method
1. in peaceful method u win more then war. Example palestine got more land in peaceful then WAR.. Iraqi and Iranian war both side didn’t gain an inch of land
2. Yes peaceful method take 20years so war too
3. In peaceful every one fight for his right without dying.. Industry running, farmer farm, economy running no destruction
Another million advantage
1. Peaceful method are misunderstood
People think it take forever on other hand war take short TIME… The realty is both take almost the same time war is not easy it might take 40years..or more in case of OLF
Dear GAmhad, u r ready to kill million people and take u the same amount of time as peaceful method.. I know WAR is sexy…peaceful method is very dull.. I hope All the glitters of WAR will not mislead u… Their is no winner in WAR.
If u ask during Mengistu TIME I will support WAR.. Today we are living in different world.. Meles government is totally different cut of meet.
If u are willing die and million to follow why not give-up same thing to gain same thing.. Without giving up some thing there is no negotiation. Saying my right my right will not help u have to pay a price to gain those right.
Example:- if Arab want peace and land they have to recognized the Israel right to exist.
In Sense the Arab give up their believe (wrong or right it might be) in order to gain some thing if u don’t understand this then peaceful method doesn’t work.
Marcus the lunatic Shabia sleeping cell said:
“Mohamed Younis Samora must have found the 1998-2000 Ethiopia-Eritrea war very exciting and profitable. He must have drawn great satisfaction from seeing the Christian highlanders in both countries decimate each other with the pretext of a dispute over a barren piece of land called Badme.
That is similar to the proverbial “killing two birds with one stone.””
Yep! The more of you dogs out of this world the better.
Good Job General Samora!
Let’s find another excuse to wip the remaining Shabia rif rafs once and for all.
‘Seattle’ the settler and Muslim sleeper cell member,
Have you disclosed every information about yourself when immigrating to the USA?
It is a serious offence to withhold any past terrorist activity. You will be liable to be deported to an Islamic paradise/hell-hole.
You are the classic Muslim ticking bomb!
jawar does not believe in ethiopianism. Jawar thinks that oromos have to rule. He has said that in addisdimest interview with tamage and abebe
All Amharas arm yourself and be ready to fight, kill and die until every Tigre and Oromo starts to treat you right
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«_alemayehu g_ mariam _» «_ali mohammed_» _education_ «_human rights_» _usaid_ agriculture «alemayehu g_ mariam» birtukan china clinton «commodity exchange» dc9 economics economy ecx «eskinder nega» inflation «meles zenawi» «messay kebede» «messay kebede» mideksa murder wikileaks «yilma bekele»